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Table 3 Odds ratios (ORs) for urinary incontinence (UI) (dependent variable) for persons with high anxiety score- and for persons with high depression-score (HADS-A and HADS-D ≥ 8, respectively) versus normal anxiety-score and normal depression-score (HADS-A and HADS-D < 8, respectively) (independent variables). ORs for the different drug groups by different volume (DDD) of drug use. N = 21,803

From: Urinary incontinence associated with anxiety and depression: the impact of psychotropic drugs in a cross-sectional study from the Norwegian HUNT study

  Anxiety (HADS-A ≥ 8) Depression (HADS-D ≥ 8)
OR * OR** OR* OR**
Reference (HADS-A/−D < 8) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Any UI 1.48 (1.36–1.60) 1.48 (1.36–1.61) 1.58 (1.42–1.76) 1.55 (1.39–1.73)
Antidepressants (n = 1947) Low DDD (n = 866)   1.10 (0.94–1.30)   1.12 (0.95–1.32)
Medium DDD (n = 684) 1.30 (1.08–1.55) 1.31 (1.09–1.56)
High DDD (n = 397) 1.36 (1.08–1.71) 1.40 (1.12–1.77)
Opioid analgesics (n = 1697) Low DDD (n = 674)   0.80 (0.67–0.97)   0.80 (0.66–0.97)
Medium DDD (n = 678) 1.00 (0.83–1.20) 1.00 (0.83–1.20)
High DDD (n = 345) 1.08 (0.83–1.40) 1.08 (0.83–1.41)
Other analgesics (n = 1412) Low DDD (n = 417)   0.88 (0.69–1.11)   0.88 (0.69–1.11)
Medium DDD (n = 744) 0.98 (0.82–1.17) 0.99 (0.83–1.18)
High DDD (n = 251) 1.18 (0.88–1.58) 1.15 (0.86–1.54)
Antiepileptic drugs (n = 393) Low DDD (n = 156)   0.86 (0.58–1.26)   0.85 (0.58–1.26)
Medium DDD (n = 165) 1.21 (0.85–1.73) 1.23 (0.86–1.75)
High DDD (n = 72) 1.13 (0.67–1.92) 1.13 (0.67–1.92)
Antiparkinson drugs (n = 95) Low DDD (n = 36)   1.18 (0.55–2.46)   1.18 (0.56–2.50)
Medium DDD (n = 40) 1.35 (0.68–2.92) 1.28 (0.62–2.70)
High DDD (n = 19) 2.64 (1.02–6.85) 2.47 (0.94–6.45)
Antipsychotic drugs (n = 379) Low DDD (n = 153)   1.38 (0.96–1.98)   1.40 (0.98–2.01)
Medium DDD (n = 143) 0.97 (0.66–1.44) 0.97 (0.66–1.44)
High DDD (n = 83) 1.14 (0.69–1.89) 1.15 (0.70–1.90)
Anxiolytic drugs (n = 1172) Low DDD (n = 449)   0.89 (0.71–1.11)   0.94 (0.75–1.17)
Medium DDD (n = 485) 0.80 (0.64–1.00) 0.86 (0.69–1.07)
High DDD (n = 238) 0.64 (0.45–0.91) 0.67 (0.48–0.95)
Hypnotic and sedative drugs (n = 2175) Low DDD (n = 930)   0.96 (0.82–1.13)   0.99 (0.84–1.15)
Medium DDD (n = 827) 0.79 (0.66–0.94) 0.80 (0.67–0.95)
High DDD (n = 418) 1.00 (0.79–1.28) 1.02 (0.80–1.30)
  1. *Adjusted for age, BMI, parity, diabetes, asthma, myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke, chronic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, use of urologic medication and use of estrogen replacement medication. ** Adjusted for the factors* and in addition psychotropic drugs. DDD: defined daily dose