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Table 4 Prevalence of and odds ratio for urinary incontinence (UI) for women with and without anxiety and depression, and women with anxiety and depression using anxiolytics or antidepressants compared to the women with anxiety and depression not using anxiolytics or antidepressants. P-values by chi-quadrat test

From: Urinary incontinence associated with anxiety and depression: the impact of psychotropic drugs in a cross-sectional study from the Norwegian HUNT study

  n % P Unadjusted OR Adjusteda OR
Anxiety (n = 21,511)    < 0.001   
 HADS-A < 8 4922 27.6   1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 HADS-A 8–10.9 827 34.6   1.39 (1.27–1.52) 1.42 (1.29–1.56)
 HADS-A ≥ 11 498 37.8   1.59 (1.42–1.79) 1.59 (1.40–1.81)
HADS-A ≥ 8 (n = 3705)
  Without use of antidepressant 1008 34.4 0.001 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
  With use of antidepressant 317 40.9 1.32 (1.12–1.55) 1.11 (0.93–1.34)
  Without use of anxiolytic 1138 35.9 0.72 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
  With use of anxiolytic 187 35.1 0.97 (0.80–1.17) 0.80 (0.64–0.99)
Depression (n = 21,545) 21,545   < 0.001   
 HADS-D < 8 5504 28.0   1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 HADS-D 8–10.9 562 39.3   1.66 (1.49–1.86) 1.52 (1.35–1.72)
 HADS-D ≥ 11 195 43.7   2.00 (1.65–2.42) 1.79 (1.46–2.21)
HAD-D ≥ 8 (n = 1877)
  Without use of antidepressant 556 39.2 0.08 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
  With use of antidepressant 201 43.8 1.21 (0.98–1.50) 1.08 (0.85–1.37)
  Without use of anxiolytic 648 40.5 0.76 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
  With use of anxiolytic 109 39.5 0.96 (0.74–1.25) 0.85 (0.63–1.14)
  1. aAdjusted for age, BMI and parity, diabetes, asthma, myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Use of drugs is defined as dispensed prescription during the last 6 months