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Table 3 Associations between severity of depression and anxiety with use of health services and medications (no self-reported physical health problems)

From: Prevalence of symptoms, ever having received a diagnosis and treatment of depression and anxiety, and associations with health service use amongst the general population in two Russian cities

PHQ-9 Severity score Number of visits to doctor in past 12 months (missing = 5) Number of hospital visits in past 12 months Number of medications used
Median (IQR) Median (IQR)a Age, sex and city adjusted rate ratioa Fully adjusted rate ratioa,b Median (IQR) Median (IQR)a Age, sex and city adjusted rate ratioa Fully adjusted rate ratioa,b Median (IQR) Median (IQR)a Age, sex and city adjusted rate ratioa Fully adjusted rate ratioa,b
No symptom (< 5) 2 (0–4) 1 (0–3) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1 (0–2) 0 (0–1) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Mild depression (5–9) 3 (1–7) 2 (0–3) 1.34 (1.14, 1.56) 1.31 (1.12, 1.53) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 1.42 (0.95, 2.11) 1.47 (0.98, 2.21) 1 (0–3) 0 (0–1) 1.16 (0.95, 1.43) 1.18 (0.96, 1.46)
Moderate depression (10–14) 4 (1–8) 1 (0–5) 1.41 (0.98, 2.03) 1.43 (0.99, 2.07) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–0) 1.83 (0.80, 4.18) 1.96 (0.85, 4.54) 2 (0–3.3) 1 (0–2) 1.38 (0.86, 2.21) 1.42 (0.88, 2.30)
Major depression (≥ 15) 5 (1–10) 4.5 (1.25–6.75) 2.91 (1.66, 5.12) 2.70 (1.55, 4.71) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 5.37 (1.86, 15.53) 5.30 (1.82, 15.42) 2 (1–3) 1 (0–2) 2.49 (0.96, 6.42) 2.16 (0.82, 5.70)
Test for trend    p < 0.001 P < 0.001    P = 0.001 P = 0.001    P = 0.02 p = 0.02
GAD-7 Anxiety severity score
 No symptoms (< 5) 2 (0–5) 1 (0–3) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1 (0–2) 0 (0–1) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 Mild anxiety (5–9) 3 (1–7) 2 (0–4) 1.38 (1.15, 1.65) 1.32 (1.10, 1.59) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 1.52 (0.97, 2.39) 1.47 (0.93, 2.33) 1 (0–3) 0 (0–1) 1.17 (0.93, 1.49) 1.15 (0.90. 1.46)
 Moderate anxiety (10–14) 3 (0–8) 2 (0–5.25) 1.84 (1.20, 2.81) 1.79 (1.17, 2.73) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 2.85 (1.17, 6.92) 2.81 (1.15, 6.84) 1 (0–3) 1 (0–2.5) 1.87 (1.09, 3.19) 1.74 (1.01, 2.98)
 Severe anxiety (≥ 15) 4 (1–8) 2.5 (0–5.75) 1.50 (0.70, 3.20) 1.53 (0.72, 3.27) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–0) 3.18 (0.69, 14.70) 2.54 (0.55, 11.76) 2 (0–4) 0 (0–3.5) 2.59 (0.75, 8.96) 3.13 (0.93, 10.57)
 Test for trend    p < 0.001 P < 0.001    P = 0.002 p = 0.005    P = 0.005 P = 0.009
  1. aRestricted to those who did not report diagnosis of cancer, angina, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, asthma, diabetes, chronic lung disease, myocardial infarction, kidney disease or heart failure and no missing data on covariates (n = 1877; with medication data n = 1486)
  2. b Adjusted for age, sex, education, martial status, employment status, perceived financial situation, smoking status, current volume of ethanol consumed per year, CAGE score