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Table 1 Components of TPB incorporated into the ARTEMIS intervention

From: The potential impact of an anti-stigma intervention on mental health help-seeking attitudes among university students

TPB component targeted Definition Identified barrier targeted ARTEMIS strategy
Attitude (towards seeking mental health services) Extent to which
an individual has a positive or negative appraisal toward mental health help-seeking
Treatment fears
Expectation that treatment is not helpful
(L) Biopsychosocial etiological model of mental illness.
(L) Efficacy of medical, psychological and combined treatment
(L) Treatment gap and consequences of delayed treatment seeking
(Q&A) Psychiatrist addressing concerns about medication side effects
(SC/V) Role of treatment in recovery journey by social contact and narration in Black Dog video
Subjective Norm Perceived social pressure/approval to seek mental health treatment Seeking help for mental illness is frowned upon (L) High prevalence of depression among tertiary students
(L, V, Q&A) Information that help-seeking improves life outcomes
(SC) Role modelling by social contact
Perceived Behavioural Control Extent to which a person perceives mental health help-seeking as easy or difficult. Do not know:
When to seek help,
Where and How to seek help
Concerns about affordability
Concerns about confidentiality
(L) Signs and symptoms of depression
(L, SC, Q&A) Avenues for help-seeking
(Q&A) Psychiatrist responses to confidentiality of treatment
  1. TPB theory of planned behaviour, L lecture, SC social contact, V video, Q&A question and answer with psychiatrist