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Table 1 Demographic characteristics

From: Real-world clinical features of and antidepressant prescribing patterns for outpatients with bipolar disorder

Variables Total
(N = 2705)
Antidepressant (−)
(N = 1598)
Antidepressant (+)
(N = 1107)
P value Scale type Statistical method
Gender     0.240 nominal scale chi-square test
 Male: n(%) 1240 (45.8) 748 (46.8) 492 (44.4)    
 Female: n(%) 1465 (54.2) 850 (53.2) 615 (55.6)    
Body mass index (kg/m2): mean 23.4 23.2 23.7 0.010 interval scale Mann-Whitney U-test
Age at study entry: mean 50.2 50.7 49.6 0.074 interval scale Mann-Whitney U-test
Age at onset of bipolar symptoms: mean 34.6 34.7 34.3 0.875 interval scale Mann-Whitney U-test
Period of attending clinic (yaer): mean 7.9 7.6 8.3 0.004 interval scale Mann-Whitney U-test
Current work status: n(%)     0.594 nominal scale chi-square test
 Employed 1808 (66.8) 1075 (67.3) 733 (66.2)    
 Unemployed 897 (33.2) 523 (32.7) 374 (33.8)    
Educational level: n(%)     0.574 ordinal scale Mann–Whitney U-test
 Junior high school or high school graduate 1407 (52.0) 841 566    
 Junior college graduate 240 (8.9) 135 105    
 College or postgraduate degree 1058 (39.1) 622 436    
Mood stabilizer prescription: n (%) 2251 (83.2) 1395 (87.3) 856 (77.3) < 0.001 nominal scale chi-square test
Antipsychotics prescription: n (%) 1449 (53.6) 892 (55.8) 557 (50.3) 0.005 nominal scale chi-square test
Anxiolytics prescription: n (%) 1000 (37.0) 472 (29.5) 528 (47.7) < 0.001 nominal scale chi-square test
Hypnotics prescription: n (%) 1605 (59.3) 896 (56.1) 709 (64.0) < 0.001 nominal scale chi-square test
Intelligence Quotient, IQ: n (%)     0.884 ordinal scale Mann-Whitney U-test
 > 85 2569 (95.0) 1517 1052    
 85–71 106 (3.9) 60 46    
 < 71 30 (1.1) 21 9    
GAF score: n(%)     < 0.001 ordinal scale Mann-Whitney U-test
 81–100 885 (32.7) 575 (36.0) 310 (28.0)    
 61–80 1243 (46.0) 739 (46.2) 504 (45.5)    
 41–60 512 (18.9) 252 (15.8) 260 (23.5)    
 1–40 65 (2.4) 32 (2.0) 33 (3.0)    
Psychiatric comorbidity: n (%) 507 (18.7) 265 (16.6) 242 (21.9) < 0.001 nominal scale chi-square test
Personality disorder: n (%) 147 (5.4) 70 (4.4) 77 (7.0) 0.005 nominal scale chi-square test
Developmental disorder: n (%) 177 (6.5) 97 (6.1) 80 (7.2) 0.264 nominal scale chi-square test
Physical comorbidity: n (%) 821 (30.4) 468 (29.3) 353 (31.9) 0.160 nominal scale chi-square test
Rapid cycler: n (%) 299 (11.1) 169 (10.6) 130 (11.7) 0.373 nominal scale chi-square test
Substance abuse: n (%) 138 (5.1) 83 (5.2) 55 (5.0) 0.862 nominal scale chi-square test
Mood status: n(%)     < 0.001 nominal scale chi-square test
 Depressive state 1098 (40.6) 519 (32.5) 579 (52.3)    
 Manic state 230 (8.5) 186 (11.6) 44 (4.0)    
 Mixed state 261 (9.6) 159 (9.9) 102 (9.2)    
 Remission 1116 (41.3) 734 (45.9) 382 (34.5)    
  1. p < 0.0025 was regarded as significant using Bonferroni’s correction due to multiple testing
  2. GAF Global Assessment of Function