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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, laboratory results, and comparisons between 29 depressed and 254 non-depressed patients with T1DM

From: Low levels of soluble TWEAK, indicating on-going inflammation, were associated with depression in type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

   Depression
  All Yes No P - value a
N 283 29 254  
Age (years) (18–59) 49 (38, 53) 42 (31, 50) 0.036
Diabetes duration (years) (1–55) 21 (11, 35) 20 (10, 29) 0.45
Sex
 Women 124 (44) 13 (45) 111 (44) > 0.99 b
 Men 159 (56) 16 (55) 143 (56)
Depression 29 (10)
sTWEAK (ng/ml) c (0.5–1618) 1.5 (1.2, 2.9) 2.7 (1.3, 13.4) 0.017
Galectin-3 (ng/ml) d (0.001–100.0) 1.3 (0.8, 3.0) 0.9 (0.5, 1.6) 0.011
High galectin-3 (≥2.6 ng/ml) d 41 (15) 10 (34) 31 (13) 0.005 b
HbA1c
 mmol/mol (25–110) 68 (55, 73) 63 (54, 70) 0.056
 % (4.4–12.2) 8.4 (7.2, 8.8) 7.9 (7.1, 8.5)
High HbA1c (> 70 mmol/mol (> 8.6%)) 75 (26) 13 (45) 62 (24) 0.026 b
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) (2.1–10.9) 4.3 (4.0, 4.8) 4.6 (4.1, 5.2) 0.044
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) (0.6–8.3) 2.8 (2.2, 3.2) 2.8 (2.4, 3.3) 0.37
Triglycerides (mmol/l) (0.06–5.9) 0.9 (0.7, 1.5) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 0.35
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) (0.3–2.7) 1.3 (1.2, 1.6) 1.6 (1.3, 1.8) 0.015
Triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (0.04–5.9) 0.6 (0.5–1.4) 0.6 (0.4–0.9) 0.23
S-Creatinine (μmol/l) e (28–182) 72 (63, 80) 70 (62, 78) 0.94
Abdominal obesity f 46 (17) 6 (21) 40 (16) 0.43 b
BMI (kg/m2) g (17.8–45.2) 23.8 (21.8, 27.3) 24.8 (22.8, 27.5) 0.21
Systolic BP (mm Hg) (90–160) 120 (112, 135) 120 (110, 130) 0.99
Diastolic BP (mm Hg) (55–100) 70 (68, 78) 70 (70, 75) 0.90
Hypoglycemia (severe episodes) 12 (4) 2 (7) 10 (4) 0.36 b
Smoking h 28 (10) 5 (18) 23 (10) 0.19 b
Physical inactivity i 29 (11) 5 (18) 24 (10) 0.20 b
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion 25 (9) 3 (10) 22 (9) 0.73 b
Antidepressants 22 (8) 9 (31) 13 (5) < 0.001 b
Lipid lowering drugs 130 (46) 14 (48) 116 (46) > 0.84 b
Antihypertensive drugs 89 (31) 10 (34) 79 (31) 0.68 b
Cardiovascular complications 10 (4) 4 (14) 6 (2) 0.012 b
  1. Data are presented as (min-max), median (q1, q3), or N (%). a Mann-Whitney U Test unless otherwise indicated
  2. b Fisher’s Exact Test. Missing values (N): c 5; d 9; e 12; f 6 g, 2; h, i 16