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Table 3 Variables associated with depression in patients with T1DM

From: Low levels of soluble TWEAK, indicating on-going inflammation, were associated with depression in type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

  Depression
  COR (95% CI) P - value AOR (95% CI) P - value 
Age (per year) 1.04 (1.00–1.07) 0.046 1.05 (1.01–1.10) 0.027
Diabetes duration (per year) 1.01 (0.98–1.04) 0.46
Sex (women) 1.0 (0.5–2.3) 0.91
Low sTWEAK (< 7.2 ng/ml) 6.5 (1.5–28.0) 0.012 9.0 (1.9–43.2) 0.006
High galectin-3 (≥2.6 ng/ml)  3.6 (1.5–8.5) 0.003 6.3 (2.2–17.8) 0.001
High HbA1c (> 70 mmol/mol (> 8.6%)) 2.5 (1.1–5.5) 0.021 2.4 (0.9–6.3) 0.067
Total cholesterol (per mmol/l) 0.6 (0.4–1.0) 0.040 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.19
LDL-cholesterol (per mmol/l) 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.23
Triglycerides (per mmol/l) 1.3 (0.8–2.0) 0.23
HDL-cholesterol (per mmol/l) 0.3 (0.1–0.8) 0.020 0.1 (0.03–0.6) 0.006
Triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio (per unit) 1.5 (1.0–2.3) 0.038 1.2 (0.6–2.4) 0.56
S-Creatinine (per μmol/l)  1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.72
Abdominal obesity  1.4 (0.5–3.7) 0.47
BMI (per kg/m2) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.38
Systolic BP (per mm Hg) 1.00 (0.96–1.03) 0.90
Diastolic BP (per mm Hg) 1.00 (0.95–1.06) 0.98
Hypoglycemia (severe episodes) 1.8 (0.4–8.6) 0.46
Smoking  2.0 (0.7–5.9) 0.19
Physical inactivity  1.9 (0.7–5.6) 0.22
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion 1.2 (0.3–4.3) 0.76
Antidepressants 8.3 (3.2–21.9) < 0.001 8.4 (2.7–26.1) < 0.001
Lipid lowering drugs 1.1 (0.5–2.4) 0.79
Antihypertensive drugs 1.2 (0.5–2.6) 0.71
Cardiovascular complications 6.6 (1.7–25.0) 0.005 1.1 (0.2–6.3) 0.92
  1. N = 273; Multiple logistic regression analyses (Backward: Wald); Nagelkerke R Square 0.340; Hosmer and Lemeshow test 0.549