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Table 3 Studies investigated the efficacy of tDCS on individuals with OCD

From: The safety and efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation as add-on therapy to fluoxetine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, clinical trial

Author, year Study design Anode and cathode position Results
Volpato et al., 2013 [32] Case report
One 35 year-old-male
Anode: neck; Cathode: F3
2 mA, 20 min daily for 10 days
• Not effective on OC symptoms
• Significant effect on depression and anxiety
Silva et al., 2016 [33] Case report
Two 31 and 37 year-old-males
Anode: left deltoid muscle; Cathode: pre-SMA
2 mA, 30 min daily for 20 days
• One participant had no improvement in Y-BOCS, depression, and anxiety
• One participant had 55% reduction in Y-BOCS and 50% reduction in depression and anxiety symptoms
Mondino et al., 2015 [34] Case report
One 52 year-old-female
Anode: right occipital cortex; Cathode: FP1
2 mA, 20 min twice a day for 5 days
• 26% reduction in Y-BOCS
Narayanaswamy et al., 2015 [35] Case report
One 39 year-old-female and one 24 year-old-male
Anode: left pre-SMA;
Cathode: right supra-orbital area
2 mA, 20 min twice a day for 10 days
• 46.7% reduction in Y-BOCS of male
• 52% reduction in Y-BOCS of female
D’Urso et al., 2016 [36] Case report
One 33 year-old-female
Active: pre-SMA;
Reference: right deltoid
2 mA, 20 min daily for 20 days
• 11% worsening in Y-BOCS after anodal sessions
• 30% reduction in Y-BOCS after cathodal sessions
Alizadeh Goradel et al., 2016 [37] Case report
One 23 year-old-female
Anode: O2; Cathode: left OFC
2 mA, 20 min daily for 10 days
• 64% reduction in Y-BOCS; 87% reduction in depression; and 100% reduction in anxiety symptoms
Palm et al., 2017 [38] Case report
One 31 year-old-male
Anode: F3;
Cathode: F4
2 mA, 30 min twice a day with total 20 stimulations in 2 weeks
• 22% reduction in Y-BOCS
Hazari et al., 2016 [39] Case report
One 24 year-old-male
Anode: left pre-SMA;
Cathode: right supraorbital area 2 mA, 20 min twice a day for 10 days
• 80% reduction in Y-BOCS
Dinn et al., 2016 [40] Open label trial
Four females and one male
Anode: F3; Cathode: Fp2
2 mA, 20 min daily for 15 days
• 23% reduction in Y-BOCS but was not maintained at 1 month of follow-up
• No reduction in anxiety symptoms and 30% reduction in depression symptoms
Najafi et al., 2017 [41] Open label trial
Twenty three females and nineteen males
Anode: P1, C3, T7; Cathode: Fp2
2 mA, 30 min daily with total 15 stimulations in 3 weeks
• 79% reduction in Y-BOCS
Bation et al., 2016 [20] Open label trial
Six females and two males
Anode: right
cerebellum;
Cathode: left OFC
2 mA, 20 min twice a day for 5 days
• 26% reduction in Y-OBCS
D’Urso et al., 2016 [21] RCT
Seven females and four males
Active: Cz; Reference: lateral surface of right deltoid
2 mA, 20 min daily for 10 days
• Cases with anodal stimulation (N = 6) had worsening in Y-BOCS
• Cases with cathodal stimulation (N = 6) had 20% reduction in Y-BOCS
Yekta et al., 2015 [42] Controlled RCT
Twenty cases (no data on gender)
Anode: F4; Cathode: F3
2 mA; 20 min daily for 15 days in experimental group
• Improved decision-making of experimental group (N = 10) compared to sham control group (N = 10)
• No report on Y-BOCS
Gowda et al., 2019 [43]; Controlled RCT
Four females and 21 males
Anode: pre-SMA; Cathode: right supraorbital area 2 mA, 20 min twice a day for 5 days • Y-BOCS was significantly reduced in experimental group compared to baseline and sham control arm
Bation et al., 2020 [44]; Controlled RCT Anode: right cerebellum; Cathode: PF1
2 mA, 20 min twice a day for 5 days
• Significant acute effect of tDCS in experimental group compared to baseline and sham control arm
• No changes in experimental group was observed compared to sham control arm after 1 and 3 months of tDCS stimulation