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Table 1 Patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) compared to Matched Controls

From: Chronic pain diagnoses and opioid dispensings among insured individuals with serious mental illness

Characteristic Patients with MDD
(N = 65,750)
n(%)/Mean ± SD
Matched Controls
(N = 65,738)
n(%)/Mean ± SD
Test Statistic p-value
Total 65,750 65,738   
Age 43.5+  13.8 43.5+  13.8 t = −0.14 0.89
Sex
 Male 18,733 (28.5%) 18,731 (28.5%) χ2 = 0 0.99
 Female 47,013 (71.5%) 47,005 (71.5%)
Medicare 6329 (9.6%) 6322 (9.6%) χ2 = 0 0.96
Race
 White/Caucasian 43,647 (66.3%) 31,328 (47.7%) χ2 = 5891.77 < 0.0001
 Black/African-American 5894 (9.0%) 5940 (9.0%)
 Asian 3850 (5.9%) 8846 (13.5%)
 Pacific Islander 540 (0.8%) 791 (1.2%)
 Native American 672 (1.0%) 462 (0.7%)
 Other 180 (0.3%) 165 (0.3%)
 Unknown 10,944 (16.6%) 18,199 (27.7%)
Ethnicity (Hispanic) 14,134 (21.5%) 15,274 (23.2%) χ2 = 57.19 < 0.0001
Neighborhood Income
  < $40,000 per year 7771(11.8%) 7648 (11.6%) χ2 = 0.12 0.73
  > $40,000 per year 56,796 (86.4%) 55,566 (84.5%)
Charlson Comorbidity Index 0.56+  1.19 0.25+  0.74 t = 56.17 < 0.0001
Total healthcare utilization in last 6 mos 8.3+  10.7 2.3+  4.3 t = 132.57 < 0.0001
Pain conditions
 Any Pain 41,036 (62.4%) 26,158 (39.8%) χ2 = 6731.57 < 0.0001
 Back pain 13,419 (20.4%) 5944 (9.0%) χ2 = 3382.42 < 0.0001
 Neck pain 6877 (10.5%) 3031 (4.6%) χ2 = 1613.80 < 0.0001
 Limb/extremity pain, arthritis 21,239 (32.3%) 12,449 (18.9%) χ2 = 3081.38 < 0.0001
 Fibromyalgia/widespread muscle 4262 (6.5%) 976 (1.5%) χ2 = 2146.34 < 0.0001
 Headache 8359 (12.7%) 6261 (4.8%) χ2 = 2580.33 < 0.0001
 Orofacial/ear/temporomandibular 728 (1.1%) 409 (0.6%) χ2 = 90.22 < 0.0001
 Abdominal/bowel pain 9922 (15.1%) 4679 (7.1%) χ2 = 2116.78 < 0.0001
 Chest pain 4995 (7.6%) 2417 (3.7%) χ2 = 949.73 < 0.0001
 Urogenital/pelvic/menstrual pain 3222 (4.9%) 1638 (2.5%) χ2 = 535.78 < 0.0001
 Fractures/contusions/sprains/strains 8542 (13.0%) 4405 (6.7%) χ2 = 1465.45 < 0.0001
 Other painful conditionsa 7994 (12.2%) 3253 (5.0%) χ2 = 2184.48 < 0.0001
Chronic opioid useb 6618 (10.1%) 1553 (2.4%) χ2 = 3346.72 < 0.0001
  1. aIncludes sickle cell disease, complex regional pain syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, acquired deformities (excluding spinal disorders), spinal
  2. cord injury, lyme disease, neuropathic pain
  3. bChronic use defined by 70+ days supply in a 90-day period, receiving 6+ dispenses in a year