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Table 2 Patients with Bipolar Disorder compared to Matched Controls

From: Chronic pain diagnoses and opioid dispensings among insured individuals with serious mental illness

Characteristic Patients with Bipolar Disorder
(N = 38,117)
n(%)/Mean ± SD
Matched Controls
(N = 38,115)
n(%)/Mean ± SD
Test Statistic p-value
Age 42.7+  13.2 42.7+  13.3 t = −0.20 0.84
Sex
 Male 12,530(32.9%) 12,530(32.9%) χ2 = 0 0.99
 Female 25,585 (67.1%) 25,583 (67.1%)
Medicare 6386 (16.8%) 6383 (16.8%) χ2 = 0 0.98
Race
 White/Caucasian 27,348(71.8%) 18,408 (48.3%) χ2 = 5450.33 < 0.0001
 Black/African-American 3410 (9.0%) 3594 (9.4%)
 Asian 1782 (4.7%) 4993 (13.1%)
 Pacific Islander 281 (0.7%) 453 (1.2%)
 Native American 499 (1.3%) 281 (0.7%)
 Other 94 (0.3%) 117 (0.3%)
 Unknown 4694 (12.3%) 10,262 (27.0%)
Ethnicity (Hispanic) 5473 (14.4%) 8307 (21.8%) χ2 = 711.63 < 0.0001
Neighborhood Income
  < $40,000 per year 4985 (13.1%) 4835(12.7%) χ2 = 0.41 0.52
  > $40,000 per year 32,544 (85.4%) 32,006 (84.0%)
Charlson Comorbidity Index 0.55+  1.10 0.28+  0.81 t = 39.21 < 0.0001
Total healthcare utilization in last 6 mo 8.6+  11.3 2.4+  4.8 t = 99.04 < 0.0001
Pain conditions
 Any Pain 23,423(61.5%) 15,342 (40.3%) χ2 = 3426.65 < 0.0001
 Back pain 7756 (20.4%) 3650 (9.6%) χ2 = 1737.92 < 0.0001
 Neck pain 3713 (9.7%) 1805 (4.7%) χ2 = 711.12 < 0.0001
 Limb/extremity pain, arthritis 12,052(31.6%) 7401 (19.4%) χ2 = 1492.66 < 0.0001
 Fibromyalgia/widespread muscle 2384 (6.3%) 663 (1.7%) χ2 = 1012.43 < 0.0001
 Headache 5000 (13.1%) 1845 (4.8%) χ2 = 1597.48 < 0.0001
 Orofacial/ear/temporomandibular 477 (1.3%) 237 (0.6%) χ2 = 81.42 < 0.0001
 Abdominal/bowel pain 5777 (15.2%) 2821 (7.4%) χ2 = 1145.30 < 0.0001
 Chest pain 3009 (7.9%) 1348 (3.5%) χ2 = 671.51 < 0.0001
 Urogenital/pelvic/menstrual pain 1925 (5.1%) 959 (2.5%) χ2 = 336.23 < 0.0001
 Fractures/contusions/sprains/strains 5567 (14.6%) 2743(7.2%) χ2 = 1076.93 < 0.0001
 Other painful conditionsa 4137 (10.9%) 2034 (5.3%) χ2 = 779.68 < 0.0001
Chronic opioid useb 3961 (10.4%) 1156 (3.0%) χ2 = 1648.10 < 0.0001
  1. aIncludes sickle cell disease, complex regional pain syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, acquired deformities (excluding spinal disorders), spinal cord injury, lyme disease, neuropathic pain
  2. bChronic use defined by 70+ days supply in a 90-day period, receiving 6+ dispenses in a year