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Table 3 Patients with Schizophrenia compared to Matched Controls

From: Chronic pain diagnoses and opioid dispensings among insured individuals with serious mental illness

Characteristic Patients with Schizophrenia
(N = 12,916)
n(%)/Mean ± SD
Matched Controls
(N = 25,791)
n(%)/Mean ± SD
Test Statistic p-value
Age 42.3+  13.8 42.3+  13.9 t = 0.34 0.73
Sex
 Male 7250 (56.1%) 14,459 (56.1%) χ2 = 0.02 0.90
 Female 5666 (43.9%) 11,332 (43.9%)
Medicare 5144 (39.8%) 10,247 (39.7%) χ2 = 0.03 0.86
Race
 White/Caucasian 6889 (53.3%) 12,770 (49.5%) χ2 = 1021.25 < 0.0001
 Black/African-American 2476 (19.2%) 2724 (10.6%)
 Asian 1317 (10.2%) 3008 (11.7%)
 Pacific Islander 153 (1.2%) 343 (1.3%)
 Native American 138 (1.1%) 204 (0.8%)
 Other 28 (0.2%) 44 (0.2%)
 Unknown 1907 (14.8%) 6696 (26.0%)
Ethnicity (Hispanic) 2511 (19.4%) 6045 (23.4%) χ2 = 79.87 < 0.0001
Neighborhood Income
  < $40,000 per year 2404 (18.6%) 3444 (13.4%) χ2 = 170.42 < 0.0001
  > $40,000 per year 10,345(80.1%) 21,650 (83.9%)
Charlson Comorbidity Index 0.63+  1.18 0.43+  1.07 t = −16.58 < 0.0001
Total healthcare utilization in last 6 mo 7.9+  10.9 2.6+  5.6 t = −63.60 < 0.0001
Pain conditions
 Any Pain 6092 (47.2%) 10,835(42.0%) χ2 = 92.96 < 0.0001
 Back pain 1855 (14.4%) 2687 (10.4%) χ2 = 129.23 < 0.0001
 Neck pain 754 (5.8%) 1228 (4.8%) χ2 = 20.52 < 0.0001
 Limb/extremity pain, arthritis 2942 (22.8%) 5312 (20.6%) χ2 = 24.41 < 0.0001
 Fibromyalgia/widespread muscle 386 (3.0%) 463 (1.8%) χ2 = 57.13 < 0.0001
 Headache 973 (7.5%) 1264 (4.9%) χ2 = 109.52 < 0.0001
 Orofacial/ear/temporomandibular 112 (0.9%) 150 (0.6%) χ2 = 10.44 0.0012
 Abdominal/bowel pain 1497 (11.6%) 1907 (7.4%) χ2 = 188.93 < 0.0001
 Chest pain 975 (7.6%) 1137 (4.4%) χ2 = 164.51 < 0.0001
 Urogenital/pelvic/menstrual pain 280 (2.2%) 442 (1.7%) χ2 = 9.69 0.0018
 Fractures/contusions/sprains/strains 1392 (10.8%) 1968 (7.6%) χ2 = 107.50 < 0.0001
 Other painful conditionsa 1117 (8.7%) 1884 (7.3%) χ2 = 21.71 < 0.0001
Chronic opioid useb 845 (6.5%) 1299 (5.0%) χ2 = 37.29 < 0.0001
  1. aIncludes sickle cell disease, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, acquired deformities (excluding spinal disorders), spinal cord injury, Lyme disease, Neuropathic pain
  2. bChronic use defined by 70+ days supply in a 90 day period, receiving 6+ dispenses in a year