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Table 4 Odds of Receiving a Chronic Pain Diagnosis and Chronic Opioid Prescriptions among Individuals with Versus without Mental Illness

From: Chronic pain diagnoses and opioid dispensings among insured individuals with serious mental illness

Mental Illness Diagnosis Chronic Pain Diagnosisa Opioid Prescriptionb
Adjusted OR (CI) Adjusted OR (CI)
Major Depressive Disorder 1.90 (1.85–1.95)* 2.59 (2.44–2.75)*
Bipolar Disorder 1.71 (1.66–1.77)* 2.12 (1.97–2.28)*
Schizophrenia 0.86 (0.82–0.90)* 1.00 (0.91–1.11)
  1. aModels adjusted for age, sex, race, income, medical comorbidities, and healthcare utilization
  2. bModels adjusted for age, sex, race, income, medical comorbidities, healthcare utilization and chronic pain diagnosis
  3. *p < 0.001