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Table 2 Characteristics of cases with (non-)chronic depression during the lifetime in clinical and population-based samples

From: Persistent depressive disorder across the adult lifespan: results from clinical and population-based surveys in Germany

 Cases with PDD in clinical sample1
(n = 45)
Cases with PDD in DEGS1-MH2
(n = 179)
Cases with NCMDD in DEGS1-MH
(n = 205)
p-value5
Age of disorder onset < 21 years3, % (95% CI)73.3 (58.0–84.5)24.7 (18.2–32.6)32.2 (23.8–41.9)0.192
Thoughts of death/suicide, or suicide plans/attempts3, % (95% CI)95.5 (82.8–98.9)86.4 (78.7–91.6)86.2 (77.6–91.8)0.960
Attempted suicide3, % (95% CI)36.4 (23.2–52.0)16.2 (9.2–26.8)11.7 (6.9–19.3)0.393
Self-reported depression course3, % (95% CI)   < 0.001
 Single episode, remitted2.3 (0.9–5.4)17.7 (10.4–28.3) 
 Single episode, acute5.7 (2.7–11.7)4.0 (1.6–9.9) 
 Recurring episodes2.3 (0.3–15.5)20.9 (14.4–29.3)55.1 (45.0–64.8) 
 Single episode, chronic course25.0 (14.1–40.4)24.3 (14.9–36.9)5.9 (3.1–10.9) 
 Persistent depressive course50.0 (35.1–64.9)24.6 (16.9–34.4)2.0 (0.5–7.9) 
 Double depression15.9 (7.5–30.5)19.3 (12.4–28.8)11.9 (6.4–21.3) 
 Other6.8 (2.1–19.9)2.9 (0.9–9.4)3.5 (1.1–9.9) 
No. of episodes3, mean (95% CI)2.8 (1.9–3.6)13.7 (8.4–19.0)7.4 (5.1–9.7)< 0.001
No. of comorbid mental disorders (lifetime)4, % (95% CI)   0.071
 046.7 (32.2–61.7)28.7 (20.8–38.2)36.9 (28.0–46.7) 
 133.3 (20.8–48.8)28.9 (21.7–37.5)37.4 (29.0–46.8) 
 213.3 (5.9–27.3)31.0 (21.8–42.0)16.4 (10.5–24.8) 
  ≥ 36.7 (2.1–19.4)11.4 (6.2–20.1)9.3 (5.0–16.6) 
Current depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 10), % (95% CI)66.7 (51.2–79.2)44.9 (35.1–55.1)18.6 (12.1–27.5)< 0.001
No. of psychotherapeutic treatments (lifetime)   0.271
 087.2 (76.3–93.5)92.6 (86.6–96.0) 
 19.1 (2.8–2.6)10.1 (4.7–20.3)6.5 (3.3–12.6) 
  ≥ 290.9 (74.1–97.2)2.7 (1.1–6.7)0.9 (0.3–2.4) 
No. of antidepressant medications (lifetime)   0.674
 02.4 (0.3–16.2)79.5 (71.7–85.6)75.1 (66.2–82.3) 
 116.7 (7.9–31.8)11.4 (7.4–17.1)12.7 (7.8–20.1) 
  ≥ 281.0 (65.6–90.5)9.1 (5.1–15.9)12.2 (7.0–20.3) 
  1. CI confidence interval, PDD persistent depressive disorder, NCMDD non-chronic major depressive disorder, SCID I Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, CIDI Composite International Diagnostic Interview
  2. 1Clinical Sample at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin: 2018–2019; n = 45 re-participants based on n = 60 patients who participated in inpatient treatment with the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP [40]), age range: 24–66 years
  3. 2German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, mental health module (DEGS1-MH): 2009–2012, weighted for population structure as of 31st December 2010; age range: 18–79 years; n = 4408 with full CIDI mood disorders section
  4. 3Based on CIDI
  5. 4Based on SCID I or CIDI diagnoses of panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobias, obsessive–compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, pain and somatoform disorders, substance abuse and dependence (excluding nicotine), anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder
  6. 5p-value based on Rao–Scott chi-square test for categorical variables and based on Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test for continuous variables in DEGS1-MH. Bold type indicates significant differences between subjects with PDD and NCMDD in DEGS1-MH (local significance level α = 0.01)