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Table 3 Health-related correlates in cases with PDD vs. NCMDD during the lifetime at a population level1

From: Persistent depressive disorder across the adult lifespan: results from clinical and population-based surveys in Germany

 PDD
(n = 179)
NCMDD
(n = 205)
Fair/poor self-rated health, % (95% CI)36.8 (28.8–45.6)20.4 (13.8–29.0)
Health-related quality of life (past 4 weeks), mean (95% CI)
 Physical component score47.1 (44.9–49.4)50.7 (48.8–52.7)
 Mental component score34.5 (32.2–36.8)43.8 (41.7–45.9)
No. of days with activity limitations (past 4 weeks), mean (95% CI)
 Owing to mental health problems5.4 (4.1–6.7)2.4 (1.2–3.6)
 Owing to physical health problems5.3 (3.9–6.7)3.1 (1.9–4.2)
No. of sick days (past 12 months), mean (95% CI)34.2 (17.6–50.8)14.8 (9.9–19.7)
No. of outpatient physician visits (past 12 months), mean (95% CI)4.3 (3.4–5.2)3.6 (2.9–4.2)
No. of outpatient psychiatric or psychotherapeutic contacts (past 12 months), mean (95% CI)5.7 (2.1–9.4)1.7 (0.7–2.7)
No. of hospital nights (past 12 months), mean (95% CI)3.9 (1.2–6.6)0.9 (0.5–1.3)
No. of chronic somatic conditions2, % (95% CI)
 042.8 (33.7–52.5)63.9 (53.7–72.9)
 131.0 (22.9–40.4)20.6 (13.6–30.0)
 2+26.2 (19.6–34.1)15.6 (10.0–23.5)
  1. CI confidence interval, PDD persistent depressive disorder, NCMDD non-chronic major depressive disorder, CIDI Composite International Diagnostic Interview
  2. 1German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, mental health module (DEGS1-MH): 2009–2012, weighted for population structure as of 31st December 2010; age range: 18–79 years; n = 4408 with full CIDI mood disorders section
  3. 2Myocardial infarction (lifetime), chronic heart failure (lifetime), stroke (lifetime), osteoarthritis (lifetime), rheumatoid arthritis (past 12 months), osteoporosis (lifetime), gout (past 12 months), bronchial asthma (past 12 months), cirrhosis of the liver (lifetime), hepatitis (past 12 months), gastric-duodenal ulcer (past 12 months), cancer (lifetime), Parkinson’s disease (lifetime), epilepsy (past 12 months), hypertension (past 12 months), dyslipidemia (past 12 months), renal failure (lifetime), and inflammatory bowel disease (12 months)
  4. Bold type indicates significant associations between depression course (PDD vs. NCMDD) and health-related correlates (at local significance level α = 0.05, resulting from multiple (continuous outcome), multiple negative binomial (dichotomous outcome) or multinomial (multinomial outcome) regression analyses; see Table 4 for detailed statistical parameters)