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Table 4 Effect estimates for health-related correlates in cases of PDD vs. NCMDD (ref.) during the lifetime1

From: Persistent depressive disorder across the adult lifespan: results from clinical and population-based surveys in Germany

  Effect estimate
(95% CI)
Fair/poor self-rated healthOR2.0 (1.0–3.9)0.041
Health-related quality of life (past 4 weeks)
 Physical component scoreβ−1.2 (-3.9 – -1.5)0.374
 Mental component scoreβ−8.2 (-11.5 – -4.9)< 0.001
No. of days with activity limitations (past 4 weeks)
 Owing to mental health problemsIRR2.6 (1.6–4.3)< 0.001
 Owing to physical health problemsIRR1.4 (0.9–2.1)0.091
No. of sick days (past 12 months)IRR1.3 (0.9–1.8)0.193
No. of outpatient physician contacts (past 12 months)IRR1.0 (0.8–1.3)0.847
No. of outpatient psychiatric/psychotherapeutic contacts (past 12 months)IRR2.7 (1.3–5.4)0.006
No. of hospital nights (past 12 months)IRR1.9 (1.0–3.8)0.065
No. of chronic somatic conditions
 0 ref. 
 1RRR2.8 (1.3–5.8)0.008
 2+RRR3.2 (1.4–7.0)0.004
  1. Regression models include health-related correlates as dependent variables and depression course (PDD vs. NCMDD) as the independent variable (reference: NCMDD). All analyses were adjusted for sex, age group, educational level, marital status, social support, chronic somatic conditions (except for analysis of the no. of chronic somatic conditions as an outcome variable), and PCS (except for analysis of PCS as an outcome variable). OR: Odds ratio from logistic regression; β: β coefficient from linear model; IRR: incidence rate ratio from negative binomial regression or zero-inflated negative binomial regression; RRR: relative risk ratio from multinomial logistic regression; p-value for testing the effect of depression course (test for OR/IRR/RRR = 1 or β = 0)
  2. CI confidence interval, PDD persistent depressive disorder, NCMDD non-chronic major depressive disorder, PCS physical component score, CIDI Composite International Diagnostic Interview
  3. 1German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, mental health module (DEGS1-MH): 2009–2012, weighted for population structure as of 12/31/2010; age range: 18–79; n = 4408 with full CIDI mood disorders section
  4. Bold type indicates significant associations between depression course (PDD vs. NCMDD) and health-related correlates (at local significance level α = 0.05, resulting from multiple (continuous outcome), multiple negative binomial (dichotomous outcome) or multinomial (multinomial outcome) regression analyses)