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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patient sample, and comparisons between non-clozapine and clozapine groups

From: Daily functioning and symptom factors contributing to attitudes toward antipsychotic treatment and treatment adherence in outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

  Total (n = 276) Non-clozapine group (n = 161) Clozapine group (n = 115)   p
Mean or n (%) S.D. Mean or n (%) S.D. Mean or n (%) S.D.  
Male sex n (%) 152 (55.1%)   85 (52.8%)   67 (58.3%)   0.368
Schizophrenia 190 (68.8%)   89 (55.3%)   101 (87.8%)   < 0.001
Schizoaffective disorder 49 (17.8%)   36 (22.4%)   13 (11.3%)   0.018
Other schizophrenia spectrum disorder 37 (13.4%)   36 (22.4%)   1 (0.9%)   < 0.001
Age 44.9 12.6 47.2 12.5 41.8 12.1 0.001
Chlorpromazine equivalents, mg 582.5 423.2 415.3 344.1 816.7 413.6 < 0.001
ANT-attitude (0–100) 72.0 16.5 71.1 17.0 73.3 15.8 0.334
ANT-adherence (over 75%) 228 (82.6%)   124 (77.0%)   104 (90.4%)   0.004
ANT-insight (0–100) 49.5 24.9 46.5 24.7 53.7 24.7 0.024
ANT-side effects (0–100) 62.4 24.0 64.0 25.5 60.2 21.6 0.175
BPRS (24–168) 34.6 7.8 34.4 8.1 34.9 7.4 0.363
BPRS positive symptoms (7–49) 10.2 4.3 10.1 4.4 10.3 4.1 0.58
HoNOS total (0–48) 7.2 4.5 7.1 4.5 7.3 4.4 0.712
HoNOS behaviour (0–12) 0.3 0.7 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.02
HoNOS impairment (0–8) 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.5 0.853
HoNOS symptoms (0–12) 3.0 2.2 2.9 2.2 3.3 2.2 0.139
HoNOS social (0–16) 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.3 0.591
SANS (0–15) 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.712
GAF (0–100) 56.1 12.6 57.6 12.5 54.0 12.5 0.022
ADL (5–20) 5.7 1.3 5.8 1.5 5.4 0.9 0.061
IADL (5–20) 7.6 2.8 7.8 3.1 7.3 2.3 0.422
Social functioning (4–16) 5.5 1.9 5.6 1.9 5.5 1.8 0.897
  1. High score in ANT -attitude, −insight and -side effect indicates positive attitudes toward medication, better sickness awareness and less experienced side effects. High score in BPRS, BPRS positive symptoms, HoNOS total, HoNOS behaviour/impairment/symptoms/social and SANS indicates more severe symptom. High score in GAF indicates better functioning. High score in ADL, IADL and social functioning indicates more problems with activities of daily living