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Table 2 Results of linear regression models explaining ANT –attitude scores in the total sample, clozapine and non-clozapine groups

From: Daily functioning and symptom factors contributing to attitudes toward antipsychotic treatment and treatment adherence in outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

  Model a Model b Model c Model d
Total sample Beta Beta Beta Beta
Age 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.01
Sex (male) 0.07 0.05 0.07 0.06
Chlorpromazine equivalent 0.16* 0.18* 0.15* 0.17*
ANT-insight 0.14* 0.07 0.11 0.15*
ANT-side effects 0.30*** 0.28*** 0.28*** 0.27***
ANT-adherence 0.17** 0.17** 0.17* 0.15*
BPRS_total −0.27***    
BPRS_positive symptoms   − 0.25***   
HoNOS_total    −0.20**  
HoNOS_behaviour     −0.06
HoNOS_impairment     0.02
HoNOS_symptoms     −0.19*
HoNOS_social     −0.10
ADL 0.10 0.08 0.11 0.09
IADL −0.03 −0.06 −0.05 − 0.07
social functioning −0.04 − 0.03 −0.07 − 0.06
Adjusted R2 0.20 0.19 0.16 0.17
p for the model < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Non-clozapine group
 Age −0.07 −0.06 −0.07 − 0.07
 Sex (male) 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.16
 Chlorpromazine equivalent 0.19* 0.21** 0.18* 0.21*
 ANT-insight 0.17 0.12 0.19* 0.24*
 ANT-side effects 0.27** 0.27** 0.24** 0.22*
 ANT-adherence 0.24** 0.23** 0.22* 0.21
BPRS_total −0.19*    
BPRS_positive symptoms   −0.24**   
HoNOS_total    −0.20*  
HoNOS_behaviour     −0.09
HoNOS_impairment     −0.03
HoNOS_symptoms     −0.23*
HoNOS_social     −0.06
ADL 0.18 0.14 0.22* 0.19*
IADL −0.03 −0.03 −0.08 − 0.09
Social functioning −0.11 − 0.12 −0.15 − 0.12
Adjusted R2 0.23 0.25 0.20 0.22
p for the model < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Clozapine group
 Age 0.14 0.17 0.13 0.14
 Sex (male) −0.07 −0.09 −0.07 − 0.10
 Chlorpromazine equivalent 0.09 0.07 0.06 0.09
 ANT-insight 0.22 0.08 0.14 0.11
 ANT-side effects 0.35** 0.30** 0.37** 0.35**
 ANT-adherence 0.10 0.11 0.14 0.10
BPRS_total −0.41***    
BPRS_positive symptoms   −0.26*   
HoNOS_total    −0.26*  
HoNOS_behaviour     −0.05
HoNOS_impairment     0.11
HoNOS_symptoms     −0.09
HoNOS_social     −0.29*
ADL −0.08 −0.02 − 0.07 −0.05
IADL −0.04 −0.12 − 0.06 −0.09
Social functioning 0.00 0.07 0.03 0.08
Adjusted R2 0.22 0.12 0.15 0.13
p for the model < 0.001 0.015 0.007 0.022
  1. * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001
  2. In the presentation of categorical variables: a positive estimate indicates a more positive attitude in women; a positive estimate indicates a more positive attitudes in the group with adherence level over 75%. High score in ANT -insight and -side effect indicates positive attitudes toward medication, better sickness awareness and less experienced side effects. All models adjusted by age, gender, daily antipsychotic dose, ANT-insight, ANT-adherence and ANT-adverse effects