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Table 2 The mean, SD, ICC, Cohen’s d, SEM and MDC of the TONI-4 (n = 103)

From: Test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the test of nonverbal intelligence-fourth edition in patients with schizophrenia

TONI-4 Early assessment
Mean (SD)
Late assessment
Mean (SD)
Cohen’s d ICC (95% CI) SEM (SEM%) MDC (MDC%)
Sum score 92.4 (9.1) 91.9 (9.9) −0.03 0.73 (0.62–0.81) 4.7 (5.1) 13.1 (14.2)
Age band
 20–39 92.5 (8.7) 93.8 (10.4) 0.13 0.70 (0.45–0.85) 4.7 (5.1) 13.2 (14.2)
 40–49 92.2 (9.6) 89.3 (9.7) −0.29 0.64 (0.37–0.81) 5.8 (6.3) 16.0 (17.3)
 50–70 92.4 (9.2) 92.5 (9.6) 0.00 0.82 (0.69–0.90) 3.9 (4.2) 10.9 (11.7)
Gender
 Male 92.3 (9.3) 93.4 (9.7) 0.12 0.70 (0.53–0.81) 5.1 (5.5) 14.1 (15.3)
 Female 92.4 (8.9) 90.4 (10.0) −0.21 0.76 (0.61–0.86) 4.4 (4.7) 12.1 (13.1)
  1. Note: SD Standard deviation, ICC Intra-class correlation coefficient, SEM Standard error of measurement, SEM% Percentage of standard error of measurement, MDC Minimal detectable change, MDC% Percentage of minimal detectable change