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Table 5 Univariate and multivariable analysis of correlates of common mental disorders among YLWH from Kenyan coast

From: Prevalence, risk and protective indicators of common mental disorders among young people living with HIV compared to their uninfected peers from the Kenyan coast: a cross-sectional study

  Positive screen for depressive symptoms Positive screen for GAD symptoms Positive CMD Comorbiditya
Covariate Univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
Multivariable analysis
aOR (95% CI)
Univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
Multivariable analysis
aOR (95% CI)
Univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
Multivariable analysis
aOR (95% CI)
A priori:
Age 1.12** (1.02, 1.24) 1.02 (0.91, 1.15) 1.09* (0.97, 1.22) 1.01 (0.88, 1.16) 1.14** (1.01, 1.29) 1.06 (0.92, 1.23)
Sex
  Male Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Female 1.62** (1.04, 2.53) 1.08 (0.63, 1.84) 2.04*** (1.20, 3.48) 1.41 (0.74, 2.66) 2.07** (1.16, 3.67) 1.45 (0.73, 2.85)
Demographic:
Education level
  Secondary Ref Ref Ref
  Tertiary 1.25 (0.65, 2.41) 1.41 (0.66, 3.01) 1.74* (0.78, 3.89)
  Primary 1.87** (1.16, 3.01) 1.87** (1.07, 3.27) 2.22** (1.21, 4.07)
  None 2.03 (0.46, 8.84) 2.00 (0.38, 10.47) 1.17 (0.14, 10.06)
Employment
  Student Ref Ref Ref
  Self-employed 0.71 (0.29, 1.75) 0.99 (0.34, 2.85) 0.77 (0.24, 2.42)
  Formally employed 1.61 (0.52, 4.99) 3.32* (1.03, 10.71) 2.43 (0.70, 8.40)
  Unemployed 1.97*** (1.21, 3.22) 2.32*** (1.28, 4.23) 1.75* (0.95, 3.23)
Living arrangement
  Family/Relative Ref Ref
  Friend/non-relative 0.58 (0.07, 4.72) 0.73 (0.09, 5.93)
  Alone 2.32** (1.10, 4.88) 2.56** (1.19, 5.50)
Psychosocial:
Parental loss    
  Both parents alive Ref Ref Ref
  One parent alive 1.41 (0.81, 2.44) 2.03* (1.01, 4.08) 1.86* (0.90, 3.86)
  Both parents died 1.86** (1.07, 3.25) 2.88*** (1.44, 5.78) 2.34** (1.12, 4.85)
Negative life events
  Noneb 0.16* (0.02, 1.22) 0.26 (0.03, 2.02) 1.00 1.00
  1–5 events Ref Ref Ref Ref
  6+ events 4.30*** (2.70, 6.84) 2.53*** (1.50, 4.26) 3.64*** (2.15, 6.18) 3.44*** (1.96, 6.05)
Asset index 0.81** (0.68, 0.95) 0.76*** (0.63, 0.92)
Social support 0.94*** (0.92, 0.96) 0.96*** (0.93, 0.98) 0.93*** (0.91, 0.96) 0.95*** (0.92, 0.98) 0.92*** (0.89, 0.95) 0.94*** (0.91, 0.97)
Health-related quality of life 0.95*** (0.93, 0.96) 0.96*** (0.95, 0.98) 0.94*** (0.93, 0.96) 0.96*** (0.94, 0.97) 0.95*** (0.93, 0.96) 0.96*** (0.94, 0.98)
Medication adherence
  High adherence Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Medium adherence 2.18*** (1.35, 3.52) 2.01** (1.14, 3.53) 1.58 (0.82, 3.04) 2.08** (1.15, 3.78) 1.76 (0.88, 3.52)
  Low adherence 3.83*** (1.85, 7.93) 6.32*** (2.97, 13.49) 2.97** (1.27, 6.95) 4.77*** (2.16, 10.51) 2.49** (1.02, 6.06)
Perceived HIV-stigma 1.10*** (1.06, 1.13) 1.04** (1.01, 1.08) 1.13*** (1.09, 1.17) 1.09*** (1.04, 1.14) 1.12*** (1.07, 1.16) 1.07*** (1.02, 1.12)
Clinical:
Body Mass Index 1.05* (0.99, 1.12)
Viral load
  ≤ 1000 copies/mL Ref
  > 1000 copies/mL 1.44* (0.92, 2.27)
Duration on cART
  > 5 years Ref
  1–5 years 1.07 (0.66, 1.75)
  6-11 months 1.54 (0.65, 3.65)
  < 6 months 2.28* (0.94, 5.53)
cART side effects
  No Ref
  Yes 1.75** (1.09, 2.78)
n for the final model   406   406   406
Variance explained   22.3%   26.2%   25.0%
Hosmer-Lemeshow test   X2 = 380.22; p-value = 0.73   X2 = 437.56; p-value = 0.08   X2 = 402.55; p-value = 0.43
cvMean AUC (95% CI)   0.78 (0.69, 0.81)   0.81 (0.77, 0.88)   0.81 (0.74, 0.86)
  1. Only a priori variables (age, sex), as well as those with p-value < 0.15 in the univariate analysis or multivariable p < 0.05 are presented here
  2. GAD Generalized anxiety disorder, CMD common mental disorder, OR odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio, Ref reference group, cvMean AUC cross-validated mean area under the curve for the final multivariable model
  3. * - p value< 0.15, ** - p value < 0.05, *** - p value < 0.01
  4. a - co-occurrence of positive screen for depressive and anxiety symptoms
  5. b − for this category, no participant screened positive for anxiety or comorbidity symptoms, hence in the univariate analysis it predicted failure perfectly