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Table 3 Univariate association of problematic internet use (PIU), problematic gaming, sleep quality, and psychological distress with sample characteristics (N = 1040)

From: The link between problematic internet use, problematic gaming, and psychological distress: does sleep quality matter?

Variable N Problematic internet use Problematic gaming Sleep quality Psychological distress
Mean p value Mean p value Mean p value Mean p value
Gender
 Male 416 53.67 0.509 18.59 < 0.001 5.42 0.758 59.16 0.082
 Female 624 54.37 14.95 5.47 51.64
Class standing
 1st year 264 53.96 0.157 16.30 0.014 5.02 0.010 53.42 0.005
 2nd year 491 53.28 15.89 5.50 49.26
 3rd year and above 285 55.61 17.42 5.76 65.06
Annual family income
  < 50,000 yuan 241 56.71 0.031 16.91 0.419 6.05 0.003 69.75 < 0.001
 50,000 to < 100,000 yuan 309 53.82 16.49 5.25 60.07
 100,000 to < 200,000 yuan 302 52.70 15.90 5.18 41.67
  > 200,000 yuan 188 53.41 16.46 5.45 47.22
Academic achievement
 Top 20% 323 53.76 0.046 16.11 0.034 5.36 0.536 54.77 0.103
 Average 564 53.47 16.21 5.44 51.85
 Bottom 20% 153 57.09 17.78 5.68 64.68
Father’s education
 Junior high school or below 381 54.57 0.014 16.97 0.002 5.70 0.056 65.10 < 0.001
 Senior high school 258 56.05 17.07 5.47 55.32
 College and above 401 52.38 15.45 5.20 44.28
Mother’s education
 Junior high school or below 436 55.30 0.005 17.06 0.001 5.68 0.097 62.07 0.001
 Senior high school 250 55.24 16.82 5.34 55.33
 College and above 354 51.79 15.32 5.25 45.02
Physical activity
 0 days/week 210 57.33 < 0.001 15.95 0.133 5.60 0.027 55.67 0.502
 1 days/week 189 55.06 16.59 5.80 56.68
 2 days/week 212 53.78 16.91 5.68 58.99
 3 days/week 200 55.26 17.12 5.21 54.47
 4–7 days/week 229 49.59 15.60 5.02 48.17
Substance use
 None 736 52.57 < 0.001 14.91 < 0.001 5.15 < 0.001 39.42 < 0.001
 1 type 137 52.78 16.99 5.65 46.74
 2 or more types 167 61.86 22.54 6.63 128.25