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Table 5 Results from mediation analysis

From: The link between problematic internet use, problematic gaming, and psychological distress: does sleep quality matter?

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
B (SE) BC 95% CI B (SE) BC 95% CI B (SE) BC 95% CI
Sleep quality mediates the association between problematic internet use (PIU) and psychological distress (N = 1040)
Indirect effect 0.47 (0.06) 0.36, 0.60 0.45 (0.06) 0.34, 0.57 0.36 (0.05) 0.26, 0.47
Direct effect 1.37 (0.11) 1.16, 1.59 1.36 (0.11) 1.15, 1.57 1.17 (0.10) 0.97, 1.37
Total effect 1.85 (0.11) 1.63, 2.07 1.81 (0.11) 1.59, 2.03 1.53 (0.11) 1.32, 1.73
Proportion of total effect mediateda 25.66% 24.87% 23.50%
Ratio of indirect to direct effecta 34.52% 33.11% 30.72%
Sleep quality mediates the association between problematic gaming and psychological distress (N = 1040)
Indirect effect 0.81 (0.13) 0.56, 1.07 0.81 (0.13) 0.56, 1.08 0.59 (0.12) 0.36, 0.85
Direct effect 3.51 (0.24) 3.05, 3.98 3.57 (0.25) 3.09, 4.06 2.72 (0.25) 2.24, 3.20
Total effect 4.32 (0.26) 3.82, 4.83 4.38 (0.27) 3.86, 4.90 3.31 (0.27) 2.79, 3.83
Proportion of total effect mediateda 18.67% 18.45% 17.89%
Ratio of indirect to direct effecta 22.96% 22.62% 21.78%
  1. aAll percentages were derived from 4-digit values and rounded to two decimal places
  2. Model 1: unadjusted mediation model
  3. Model 2: adjusted for sociodemographic (gender, class standing, academic achievement, annual household income, father’s education, mother’s education)
  4. Model 3: adjusted for sociodemographic + behavioral variables (gender, class standing, academic achievement, annual household income, father’s education, mother’s education + level of physical activity and substance use)
  5. BC 95% CI Bias-corrected confidence intervals based on 10,000 bootstrap samples, B unstandardized coefficient, SE standard error