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Table 1 Characteristics of Vancouver At Home participants randomized to Housing First (n = 297)

From: The association between experiencing homelessness in childhood or youth and adult housing stability in Housing First

Variable n (%) / mean (SD)
Socio-demographics
 Age at randomization
  <  25 years 22 (7.4)
  25–44 years 171 (57.6)
  > 44 years 104 (35.0)
Gender
 Woman 77 (26.0)
 Man 219 (74.0)
 Ethnicity
  Indigenous 51 (17.2)
  White 173 (58.2)
  Other 73 (24.6)
Education
 Less than high school 173 (58.8)
 High school or higher 121 (41.2)
Marital Status
 Single (never married) 205 (69.5)
 Other 90 (30.5)
Homelessness
 Age of first homeless
  <  25 years 128 (43.7)
  ≥ 25 years 165 (56.3)
Lifetime duration of homelessness
  ≤ 36 months 145 (49.5)
  > 36 months 148 (50.5)
Longest episode of homelessness
 ≤ 12 months 141 (48.1)
 >  12 months 152 (51.9)
Housing status (at enrollment)
 Absolutely homeless 232 (78.1)
 Precariously housed 65 (21.9)
Criminal justice (past 6 months)
 Arrested (> 1), imprisoned (≥1), on probation, or received community sanction
  No 161 (54.2)
  Yes 136 (45.8)
Spent at least one night in jail
 No 256 (86.2)
 Yes 41 (13.8)
Mental illness, learning disability, and community functioning
 Mental health symptom severity (Colorado Symptom Index score)
  Mean (SD) 36.6 (12.8)
Less severe cluster of mental disorders
 No 147 (49.5)
 Yes 150 (50.5)
Severe cluster of mental disorders
 No 75 (25.2)
 Yes 222 (74.8)
Learning disability in childhood (you perceived)
 No 190 (64.0)
 Yes 107 (36.0)
Learning disability in childhood (someone told you)
 No 191 (64.3)
 Yes 106 (35.7)
Community functioning (Multnomah Community Ability Scale score)
 Mean (SD) 55.2 (9.5)
Family separation and adverse childhood experiences
 Lived away from parents for any reason under the age of 181
  No 110 (40.1)
  Yes 164 (59.9)
Ever placed in foster care2
 No 190 (69.3)
 Yes 84 (30.7)
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE)3
 Mean (SD) 3.8 (2.7)
Substance use (past month)
 Use of alcohol
  No 164 (55.6)
  Yes 131 (44.4)
Use of heroin
 No 240 (81.4)
 Yes 55 (18.6)
Use of illicit methadone
 No 283 (95.9)
 Yes 12 (4.1)
Use of benzodiazepines
 No 268 (91.2)
 Yes 26 (8.8)
Use of cocaine
 No 245 (83.1)
 Yes 50 (16.9)
Use of crack
 No 197 (66.8)
 Yes 98 (33.2)
Use of amphetamine
 No 254 (86.7)
 Yes 39 (13.3)
Use of cannabis
 No 148 (55.0)
 Yes 121 (45.0)
Injected drugs
 No 239 (81.6)
 Yes 54 (18.4)
Daily substance use (including alcohol)
 No 211 (71.5)
 Yes 84 (28.5)
Daily drug use (excluding alcohol)
 No 218 (73.9)
 Yes 77 (26.1)
Daily hard drug use (excluding alcohol & cannabis)
No 251 (85.1)
Yes 44 (14.9)
Money spent on alcohol (CAD)
 Mean (SD) 60.0 (164.5)
Money spent on drugs (CAD)
Mean (SD) 331.3 (852.9)
Other
Sex work-related income (past month)
 No 282 (94.9)
 Yes 15 (5.1)
Type of Housing First intervention
 Housing First with intensive case management 100 (33.7)
 Housing First with assertive community treatment 90 (30.3)
 Congregate housing with on-site support 107 (36.0)
  1. 1 The variable “Lived away from parents for any reason under the age of 18” was asked at the 12-month follow-up interview, with information available for 274 participants
  2. 2 The variable “Ever placed in foster care” was asked at the 12-month follow-up interview, with information available for 274 participants
  3. 3 The variable “Adverse childhood experiences” was asked at the 18-month follow-up interview, with information available for 229 participants