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Table 1 Hospital and county-level characteristics by telepsychiatry adoption in 2017

From: Telepsychiatry adoption across hospitals in the United States: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Number (%)
of Hospitals
Number (%)
of Hospitals had Telepsychiatry
Number (%)
of Hospitals without Telepsychiatry
P
Nationally 3475 (100.0) 548 (15.8) 2927 (84.2)  
Hospital Location
 Urban 2046 (58.9) 397 (19.4) 1649 (80.6) < 0.001
 Rural Micropolitan 602 (17.3) 82 (13.6) 520 (86.4) < 0.001
 Rural Noncore 827 (23.8) 69 (8.3) 758 (91.7) < 0.001
Provision of Psychiatric Services
 None of Inpatient and
Outpatient Psychiatric Services
1526 (43.9) 104 (6.8) 1422 (93.2) < 0.001 <  0.001
 Inpatient Psychiatric Services Only 111 (3.2) 9 (7.9) 102 (92.1) 0.02
 Outpatient Psychiatric Services Only 814 (23.4) 124 (15.2) 690 (84.8) 0.63
 Both Inpatient and Outpatient Psychiatric Services 1024 (29.5) 311 (30.4) 713 (69.6) <  0.001
Ownership
 Federal 55 (1.6) 44 (80.0) 11 (20.0) <  0.001
 Non-federal Public 731 (21.0) 92 (12.6) 639 (87.4) <  0.01
 Non-profit, Private 384 (11.1) 33 (8.6) 351 (91.4) <  0.001
 For-profit, Private 2305 (66.3) 379 (16.4) 1926 (83.6) 0.13
System Affiliation <  0.001
 Yes 2337 (67.3) 423 (18.1) 1914 (81.9)  
 No 1138 (32.7) 125 (11.0) 1013 (89.0)  
Teaching Status <  0.001
 Yes 1508 (43.4) 341 (22.6) 1167 (77.4)  
 No 1967 (56.6) 207 (10.5) 1760 (89.5)  
Critical Access Hospital <  0.001
 Yes 1003 (28.9) 81 (8.1) 922 (91.9)  
 No 2472 (71.1) 467 (18.9) 2005 (81.1)  
Hospital Beds Staffed
 1–25 1034 (29.8) 76 (7.4) 958 (92.7) <  0.001
 26–100 800 (23.0) 112 (14.0) 688 (86.0) 0.12
 101–225 747 (21.5) 128 (17.1) 619 (82.9) 0.25
  > 225 894 (25.7) 232 (26.0) 662 (74.1) <  0.001
Ratio of Medicaid Inpatient Days to Total Inpatient Days
  ≤ 7.76% 887 (25.5) 105 (11.8) 782 (88.2) <  0.001
 7.76%-16.67 1048 (30.2) 134 (12.8) 914 (87.2) <  0.01
 16.67–23.61% 729 (21.0) 131 (18.0) 598 (82.0) 0.07
  > 23.61% 811 (23.3) 178 (22.0) 633 (78.0) <  0.001
Profit Margins
 Negative Margins 879 (25.3) 104 (11.8) 775 (88.2) <  0.001
 Positive Margins 2047 (58.9) 314 (15.3) 1733 (84.7) 0.41
 Missing 549 (15.8) 130 (23.7) 419 (76.3) <  0.001
County-level Population by Age Groups, (Mean, Standard Deviation)
  < 15 19.0% (0.026) 19.0% (0.026) 18.7% (0.026) 0.13
 15–24 13.3% (0.031) 13.2% (0.031) 13.7% (0.031) <  0.001
 25–44 27.4% (0.036) 27.2% (0.036) 28.3% (0.036) <  0.001
 45–64 26.3% (0.029) 26.4% (0.030) 25.9% (0.029) <  0.001
 65–74 7.5% (0.019) 7.6% (0.019) 7.1% (0.019) <  0.001
  > 75 6.6% (0.021) 6.6% (0.021) 6.2% (0.021) <  0.001
County-level Population by Race/Ethnicity, % (Mean, Standard Deviation)
 Non-Hispanic White 69.9% (0.219) 70.3% (0.220) 67.5% (0.213) <  0.001
 Non-Hispanic Black 5.3% (0.064) 5.1% (0.064) 6.1% (0.063) <  0.001
 American Indian and Alaska Native 1.8% (0.052) 1.8% (0.052) 16.2% (0.054) 0.03
 Hispanic 13.3% (0.155) 13.3% (0.158) 13.0% (0.138) 0.02
 Other 9.8% (0.094) 9.4% (0.093) 11.8% (0.976) <  0.001
County-level Population Uninsured, %
  ≤ 7.4% 1132 (32.6) 203 (17.9) 929 (82.1) 0.02
 7.4–10.6% 926 (26.6) 153 (16.5) 773 (83.5) 0.46
 10.6–14.5% 717 (20.6) 123 (17.2) 594 (82.9) 0.25
  > 14.5% 700 (20.1) 69 (9.9) 631 (90.1) <  0.001
County-level Population Living in Poverty (<  200% Federal Poverty Level), %
  ≤ 26.43% 1063 (30.6) 199 (18.7) 864 (81.3) <  0.01
  26.43–32.58% 1064 (30.6) 164 (15.4) 900 (84.6) 0.70
 32.58–39.20% 812 (23.4) 124 (15.3) 688 (84.7) 0.66
  > 39.20% 536 (15.4) 61 (11.4) 475 (88.6) <  0.01
County-level Population Unemployed, %
  ≤ 3.5% 881 (25.4) 123 (14.0) 758 (86.0) 0.09
 3.5–4.4% 1070 (30.8) 185 (17.3) 885 (82.7) 0.10
 4.4–5.5% 976 (28.1) 158 (16.2) 818 (83.8) 0.67
  > 5.5% 548 (15.8) 82 (15.0) 466 (85.0) 0.57
Designation as a Mental Health Professional Shortage Area
 No 218 (6.3) 48 (22.0) 170 (78.0) <  0.01
 Part 1676 (48.2) 334 (19.9) 1342 (80.1) <  0.001
 Whole 1581 (45.5) 166 (10.5) 1415 (89.5) <  0.001
County-level Total Number of Psychiatrists
 None 1308 (37.6) 125 (9.6) 1183 (90.4) <  0.001
 1–4 400 (11.5) 55 (13.8) 345 (86.3) <  0.001
  > 4 1767 (50.8) 368 (20.8) 1399 (79.2) <  0.001
Census Region
 Northeast 612 (17.6) 102 (16.7) 510 (83.3) 0.50
  South 1146 (33.0) 167 (14.6) 979 (85.4) 0.17
 Midwest 1271 (36.6) 178 (14.0) 1093 (86.0) 0.03
 West 446 (12.8) 101 (22.7) 345 (77.3) <  0.001
  1. Notes: The P values are derived from Pearson’s Chi-squared tests for the categorical characteristics (percentages) and from Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum tests for the numeric characteristics for the null hypothesis that hospitals with and without telepsychiatry are the same