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Table 3 Top risk factors associated with depression, lack of mental well-being and anxietya

From: Mental ill-health during COVID-19 confinement

Risk factors Depression Anxiety Lack of mental well-being
TOTAL women men 16–44 45–64 65+ TOTAL women men 16–44 45–64 65+ TOTAL women men 16–44 45–64 65+
Worry about problems due living together at homeb 1.80 (1.63 to 1.99) 1.70 (1.52–1.91) 2.29 (1.81–2.89 1.65 (143–1.90) 1.81 (1.55–2.11) 2.99 (1.87–4.80) 2.05 (1.86 to 2.27) 1.95 (1.74 to 2.18) 2.58 (2.07 to 3.20) 2.08 (1.80 to 2.40) 1.75 (1.51 to 2.03) 6.06 (3.84 to 9.55) 1.93 (1.64–2.27) 2.20 (1.78 to 2.72) 1.56 (1.20 to 2.03) 2.11 (1.56 to 2.85) 1.81 (1.46 to 2.24) 1.84 (1.13 to 3.01)
Worry about the uncertainty of when and how normality will returnb 1.59 (1.49 to 1.70) 1.62 (1.51 to 1.74) 1.58 (1.36 to 1.83) 1.59 (1.45 to 1.74) 1.52 (1.38 to 1.68) 2.29 (1.75 to 3.01) 1.89 (1.78 to 2.01) 1.87 (1.75 to 2.00) 2.06 (1.79 to 2.36) 1.90 (1.73 to 2.07) 1.81 (1.65 to 1.98) 2.38 (1.88 to 3.02) 1.69 (1.58 to 1.81) 1.79 (1.65–1.95) 1.49 (1.32 to 1.68) 1.91 (1.68 to 2.18) 1.56 (1.43 to 1.71) 1.79 (1.51 to 2.11)
Suffer from chronic diseases that increase own risk of COVID-19 infectionc 1.56 (1.44 to 1.68) 1.58 (1.44 to 1.72) 1.56 (1.31 to 1.85) 1.49 (1.30 to 1.70) 1.55 (1.40 to 1.73) 2.02 (1.57 to 2.61) 1.36 (1.26 to 1.47) 1.33 (1.22 to 1.46) 1.50 (1.28 to 1.76) 1.36 (1.19 to 1.55) 1.35 (1.22 to 1.50) 1.43 (1.13 to 1.82) 1.28 (1.18 to 1.40) 1.26 (1.13 to 1.40) 1.37 (1.19 to 1.57) 1.23 (1.01 to 1.49) 1.25 (1.12 to 1.39) 1.47 (1.23 to 1.74)
Worry about uncertain future of own jobb 1.60 (1.49–1.72) 1.58 (1.45 to 1.71) 1.78 (1.51 to 2.09) 1.43 (1.29 to 1.59) 1.80 (1.61 to 2.01) 1.65 (1.13 to 2.41) 1.49 (1.39 to 1.60) 1.49 (1.38 to 1.62) 1.54 (1.32 to 1.80) 1.33 (1.20 to 1.48) 1.66 (1.50 to 1.85) 1.48 (1.04 to 2.10) 1.54 (1.41 to 1.68) 1.47 (1.32 to 1.64) 1.70 (1.45 to 1.98) 1.58 (1.36 to 1.84) 1.56 (1.38 to 1.76) 1.38 (1.03 to 1.84)
Worry about the COVID-19’s negative economic consequencesb 1.31 (1.23 to 1.41) 1.32 (1.22 to 1.42) 1.28 (1.08 to 1.50) 1.31 (1.18 to 1.45) 1.24 (1.13 to 1.37) 2.02 (1.56 to 2.61) 1.46 (1.37 to 1.56) 1.49 (1.38 to 1.60) 1.29 (1.11 to 1.50) 1.40 (1.27 to 1.55) 1.50 (1.37 to 1.64) 1.49 (1.18 to 1.88) 0.88 (0.82 to 0.94) 0.88 (0.81 to 0.96) 0.87 (0.76 to 0.99) 0.77 (0.67 to 0.89) 0.92 (0.84 to 1.01) 0.92 (0.77 to 1.11)
Worry about not being able to go out of the house or visit loved onesb 1.39 (1.31 to 1.48) 1.38 (1.29 to 1.48) 1.44 (1.24 to 1.67) 1.31 (1.20 to 1.44) 1.43 (1.30 to 1.58) 1.65 (1.28 to 2.15) 1.38 (1.30 to 1.46) 1.36 (1.27 to 1.46) 1.42 (1.24 to 1.63) 1.37 (1.25 to 1.50) 1.34 (1.23 to 1.47) 1.58 (1.26 to 1.98) 1.30 (1.21 to 1.39) 1.35 (1.24 to 1.46) 1.18 (1.04 to 1.33) 1.46 (1.29 to 1.66) 1.23 (1.13 to 1.35) 1.22 (1.03 to 1.45)
Worry about anxious children who do not know what to do, leading to tensions and bad child behaviourb 1.45 (1.33 to 1.58) 1.48 (1.34 to 1.62) 1.30 (1.05 to 1.61) 1.47 (1.29 to 1.68) 1.48 (1.30 to 1.67) 1.53 (1.11 to 2.09) 1.62 (1.49 to 1.76) 1.61 (1.47 to 1.76) 1.72 (1.43 to 2.08) 1.57 (1.39 to 1.78) 1.68 (1.49 to 1.88) 1.90 (1.44 to 2.51) 1.44 (1.29 to 1.60) 1.50 (1.32 to 1.71) 1.29 (1.07 to 1.56) 1.42 (1.17 to 1.73) 1.56 (1.35 to 1.80) 1.25 (0.97 to 1.61)
Being responsible for dependent people that take up most of the timec 1.27 (1.01 to 1.60) 1.38 (1.08 to 1.76) 0.71 (0.34 to 1.45) 0.78 (0.49 to 1.24) 1.43 (1.08 to 1.90) 1.83 (0.86 to 3.91) 1.61 (1.30 to 2.00) 1.61 (1.27 to 2.03) 1.37 (0.75 to 2.49) 1.38 (0.89 to 2.14) 1.70 (1.30 to 2.22) 1.59 (0.78 to 3.24) 0.92 (0.71 to 1.18) 0.90 (0.68 to 1.19) 0.92 (0.51 to 1.65) 0.65 (0.36 to 1.15) 0.92 (0.67 to 1.26) 1.40 (0.77 to 2.54)
Worry about oneself or family member being infected by COVID-19b 1.17 (1.10 to 1.24) 1.17 (1.09 to 1.25) 1.21 (1.04 to 1.40) 1.12 (1.03 to 1.23) 1.20 (1.09 to 1.31) 1.41 (1.07 to 1.84) 1.49 (1.40 to 1.58) 1.51 (1.41 to 1.61) 1.44 (1.26 to 1.65) 1.42 (1.31 to 1.55) 1.55 (1.41 to 1.69) 1.66 (1.29 to 2.12) 1.16 (1.10 to 1.24) 1.17 (1.09 to 1.26) 1.15 (1.03 to 1.28) 1.27 (1.13 to 1.42) 1.12 (1.03 to 1.21) 1.22 (1.05 to 1.42)
Worry about being alone and not being able to take care of oneselfb 1.17 (1.07 to 1.28) 1.21 (1.10 to 1.33) 1.01 (0.81 to 1.25) 1.16 (1.01 to 1.33) 1.16 (1.03 to 1.32) 1.25 (0.94 to 1.68) 1.22 (1.12 to 1.32) 1.25 (1.14 to 1.37) 1.14 (0.93 to 1.38) 1.30 (1.14 to 1.50) 1.10 (0.98 to 1.23) 1.56 (1.21 to 2.02) 1.11 (1.01 to 1.23) 1.14 (1.01 to 1.28) 1.07 (0.89 to 1.27) 1.21 (0.96 to 1.52) 1.04 (0.91 to 1.18) 1.29 (1.04 to 1.61)
Spending more than 2 h a day reading COVID-19 news or informationc 1.18 (1.09 to 1.27) 1.16 (1.07 to 1.26) 1.23 (1.05 to 1.44) 1.10 (0.98 to 1.24) 1.22 (1.10 to 1.35) 1.32 (1.02 to 1.72) 1.32 (1.23 to 1.41) 1.30 (1.20 to 1.41) 1.36 (1.17 to 1.57) 1.33 (1.19 to 1.49) 1.27 (1.15 to 1.40) 1.57 (1.25–1.98) 1.16 (1.08 to 1.25) 1.12 (1.02 to 1.22) 1.25 (1.10 to 1.42) 1.03 (0.88 to 1.21) 1.24 (1.12 to 1.37) 1.09 (0.92 to 1.28)
  1. aOdds ratios underlined in bold are those greater than 1.5, with probability values for confidence intervals of less than 0.001; odds ratios in bold are those greater than 1.25, with probability values for confidence intervals of less than 0.001; odds ratios that are not underlined or bold are not greater than 1.25, or have a probability value of 0.001 or greater
  2. bWorry a lot (score 4 on a 4-point Likert scale from 1, not worried to 4, worried a lot) versus not score 4
  3. cPresent versus absent