Skip to main content

Table 2 Mean distribution of psychological distress over background characteristics among older adults in India (N = 9181)

From: Socioeconomic inequality in psychological distress among older adults in India: a decomposition analysis

Variables Mean CI (95%)
Age (years)
 60–69 0.20 0.205–0.195
 70–79 0.27 0.279–0.261
 80+ 0.35 0.366–0.334
Gender
 Men 0.21 0.216–0.204
 Women 0.26 0.266–0.254
Religion
 Hindu 0.26 0.265–0.255
 Muslim 0.23 0.247–0.213
 Sikh 0.08 0.090–0.070
 Others 0.16 0.178–0.142
Caste
 Scheduled Caste 0.28 0.291–0.269
 Scheduled Tribe 0.32 0.342–0.298
 Other Backward Class 0.26 0.268–0.252
 Others 0.17 0.176–0.164
Place of residence
 Rural 0.25 0.256–0.244
 Urban 0.19 0.196–0.184
Educational status
 No education 0.31 0.317–0.303
 Below 5 years 0.22 0.230–0.210
 6–10 years 0.13 0.137–0.123
 11+ years 0.08 0.090–0.070
Marital status
 Not in union 0.29 0.297–0.283
 Currently in union 0.20 0.205–0.195
Wealth
 Poorest 0.37 0.382–0.358
 Poorer 0.29 0.301–0.279
 Middle 0.20 0.209–0.191
 Richer 0.15 0.158–0.142
 Richest 0.09 0.097–0.083
Source of income
 0 “No source” 0.27 0.277–0.263
 1 0.22 0.226–0.214
 2+ 0.17 0.182–0.158
Working status
 No 0.25 0.255–0.245
 Yes 0.25 0.259–0.241
Community involvement
 No 0.35 0.361–0.339
 Yes 0.21 0.215–0.205
Living arrangement
 Alone 0.33 0.350–0.310
 With spouse 0.21 0.221–0.199
 Others 0.23 0.235–0.225
How important do you feel you are important to your family?
 Important 0.16 0.165–0.155
 Somewhat or not important 0.36 0.369–0.351
Violence
 No 0.22 0.225–0.215
 Yes 0.34 0.356–0.324
Multi-morbidity
 0 “No morbidity” 0.20 0.207–0.193
 1 0.25 0.258–0.242
 2+ 0.26 0.268–0.252
Disability
 0 “No disability” 0.12 0.127–0.113
 1 0.18 0.187–0.173
 2+ 0.35 0.358–0.342
ADL
 High “6+ score” 0.21 0.214–0.206
 Low “5 or less score” 0.51 0.529–0.491
IADL
 High “6+ score” 0.14 0.145–0.135
 Low “5 or less score” 0.30 0.307–0.293
Cognitive ability
 High “scores 5+” 0.14 0.146–0.134
 Low “scores of 4 or less” 0.30 0.306–0.294
State
 Kerala 0.14 0.149–0.131
 Himachal Pradesh 0.17 0.180–0.160
 Punjab 0.07 0.077–0.063
 West Bengal 0.29 0.304–0.276
 Orissa 0.37 0.383–0.357
 Maharashtra 0.23 0.242–0.218
 Tamil Nadu 0.36 0.373–0.347
Total 0.23 0.234–0.226
  1. CI Confidence Interval