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Table 3 Odds Ratio estimates for high psychological distress by background characteristics among older adults in India (N = 9181)

From: Socioeconomic inequality in psychological distress among older adults in India: a decomposition analysis

Variables Model-I Model-II
Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
p-value
Age (years)
 60–69    Ref.  
 70–79    0.97(0.83,1.15) 0.760
 80+    1.03(0.80,1.31) 0.828
Gender
 Men    Ref.  
 Women    0.88(0.74,1.05) 0.164
Religion
 Hindu    Ref.  
 Muslim    1.20(0.91,1.58) 0.197
 Sikh    0.92(0.55,1.53) 0.737
 Others    0.96(0.68,1.37) 0.833
Caste
 Scheduled Caste    Ref.  
 Scheduled Tribe    0.87(0.64,1.16) 0.343
 Other Backward Class    0.77(0.62,0.95) 0.014
 Others    0.79(0.65,0.97) 0.026
Place of residence
 Rural    Ref.  
 Urban    0.97(0.83,1.13) 0.675
Educational status
 No education    Ref.  
 Below 5 years    0.77(0.64,0.93) 0.005
 6–10 years    0.61(0.49,0.78) 0.001
 11+ years    0.56(0.37,0.86) 0.008
Marital status
 Not in union    Ref.  
 Currently in union    1.05(0.88,1.25) 0.587
Wealth
 Poorest Ref.   Ref.  
 Poorer 0.68(0.59,0.78) 0.001 1.10(0.91,1.34) 0.311
 Middle 0.40(0.34,0.46) 0.001 0.87(0.69,1.09) 0.229
 Richer 0.26(0.22,0.31) 0.001 0.83(0.64,1.08) 0.158
 Richest 0.15(0.12,0.18) 0.001 0.60(0.43,0.83) 0.002
Source of income
 0 “No source” Ref.   Ref.  
 1 0.76(0.68,0.86) 0.001 1.01(0.85,1.20) 0.899
 2+ 0.54(0.44,0.68) 0.001 0.84(0.62,1.13) 0.246
Working status
 No Ref.   Ref.  
 Yes 0.73(0.63,0.85) 0.001 0.98(0.79,1.21) 0.825
Community involvement
 No    Ref.  
 Yes    0.81(0.69,0.96) 0.014
Living arrangement
 Alone    Ref.  
 With souse    0.71(0.50,1.00) 0.048
 Others    0.83(0.63,1.11) 0.210
How important do you feel you are important to your family?
 Important    Ref.  
 Somewhat or not important    1.81(1.56,2.09) 0.001
Violence
 No    Ref.  
 Yes    1.78(1.43,2.22) 0.001
Multi-morbidity
 0 “No morbidity”    Ref.  
 1    1.22(1.03,1.45) 0.024
 2+    1.47(1.21,1.77) 0.001
Disability
 0 “No disability”    Ref.  
 1    1.79(1.44,2.21) 0.001
 2+    3.49(2.82,4.32) 0.001
ADL
 High “6+ score”    Ref.  
 Low “5 or less score”    1.92(1.50,2.46) 0.001
IADL
 High “6+ score”    Ref.  
 Low “5 or less score”    1.38(1.18,1.62) 0.001
Cognitive ability
 High “scores 5+”    Ref.  
 Low “scores of 4 or less”    1.76(1.50,2.08) 0.001
State
 Kerala    Ref.  
 Himachal Pradesh    0.99(0.70,1.39) 0.943
 Punjab    0.33(0.21,0.54) 0.001
 West Bengal    1.34(1.01,1.78) 0.045
 Orissa    2.27(1.69,3.04) 0.001
 Maharashtra    1.42(1.07,1.87) 0.015
 Tamil Nadu    6.03(4.47,8.13) 0.001
  1. Ref Reference, CI Confidence Interval