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Table 7 Predictors for anxiety (GAD-7 score ≥ 8) in adult population and predictors for parent/teacher reported emotional problems in children (SDQ score ≥ 5) using multivariable logistic regression analysis

From: The psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adults and children in the United Arab Emirates: a nationwide cross-sectional study

Variable b SE(b) P-value aOR [95% CI]
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) score (n = 1469)#
Sex Female 0.649 0.178 < 0.001 1.91 [1.35–2.71]
Malea 1
Precautionary Measures Agree −0.740 0.146 < 0.001 0.48 [0.36–0.63]
Disagreea 1
Public fear Justifiable Agree 1.811 1.082 0.094 6.11 [0.73–51.0]
Disagreea 1
Levels of Worry associated with COVID-19 High 1.336 0.139 < 0.001 3.80 [2.90–5.00]
Lowa 1
Will take COVID-19 Vaccine Yes 0.446 0.1478 0.003 1.57 [1.17–2.09]
Noa 1
Symptoms- Sore throat Yes 0.447 0.173 0.010 1.56 [1.17–2.09]
Noa 1
Taking Vitamin C Yes 0.344 0.134 0.010 1.41 [1.09–1.83]
Noa 1
Smoker Yes 0.435 0.194 0.025 1.55 [1.06–2.26]
Noa 1
Model fit: Hosmer and Lemeshow test χ2(8, N = 1469) = 7.16, p = 0.519–2 log likelihood 1081.692
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) score (n = 1160)*
Adult relationship to child/ren Parent only 0.854 0.493 0.884 2.35 [0.89–6.17]
Parent & Teacher 1.626 0.519 < 0.001 5.08 [1.84–14.0]
Teacher onlya 1
Child/ren in lower secondary education Yes 0.522 0.189 0.006 1.69 [1.16–2.44]
Noa 1
Child/ren in higher secondary education Yes 0.460 0.199 0.021 1.59 [1.07–2.34]
Noa 1
Anxiety level (GAD-7) Severe 1.94 0.355 < 0.001 7.00 [3.45–14.0]
Moderate 1.505 0.340 0.013 4.51 [2.31–8.80]
Mild 0.582 0.344 0.011 1.79 [0.91–3.50]
Minimala 1
Difficulty of parent/teacher to get things done Extremely 1.299 0.439 0.003 3.70 [1.55–8.66]
Very 1.403 0.348 < 0.001 4.07 [2.10–8.05]
Somewhat 0.805 0.306 0.009 2.24 [1.23–4.08]
Not difficult at alla 1
Model fit: Hosmer and Lemeshow test χ2 (7, N = 1160) =11.99, p = 0.101); −2 log likelihood 764.550
  1. a reference group, b parameter estimate, SE Std Error, aOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval. #Logistic regression adjusted for the effects of sex, age, age of children, perception of fear, perception of likelihood to contract COVID-19 and to develop severe disease, headaches, sore throat, asthma, measures taken for symptoms, smoking, and changed smoking habits, likelihood of vaccination for self and children, hygienic behavior and attitudes towards precautionary measures
  2. *Logistic regression adjusted for adult’s relationship to child, age (school-aged or adolescent), marital status, educational level of child (lower secondary and higher secondary), coping strategies, worry, parental anxiety levels (GAD-7) and difficulty getting things done