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Table 2 Comparison of mean score of stress, state and trait anxiety before and 4 weeks after intervention in the studied groups

From: The effect of counseling on fathers’ stress and anxiety during pregnancy: a randomized controlled clinical trial

Variable Counseling (n = 51)
Mean (SDa)
Control (n = 51)
Mean (SDa)
AMD (95% CI)b P
Perceived stress (0–56)
 Before intervention 22.5 (7.8) 20.1 (7.4) 2.4 (−0.6 to 5.4) 0.115
 Four weeks after the intervention 21,5 (9.3) 19.7 (8.6) −0.4 (−2.5 to 1.5) 0.635
State anxiety (20–80)
 Before intervention 36.1 (10.3) 36.6 (10.9) -0.4 (4.6 to 3.6) 0.817
 Four weeks after the intervention 34.6 (10.0) 37.5 (12.2) −2.4 (− 4.7 to −0.2) 0.030
Trait anxiety (20–80)
 Before intervention 36.1 (10.3) 35.6 (10.9) 0.5 (−3.6 to 4.7) 0.789
 Four weeks after the intervention 35.9 (11.0) 36.2 (12.1) −0.8 (− 3.2 to 15) 0.472
  1. aStandard Deviation, bAdjusted Mean Difference (95% Confidence Interval)
  2. Independent t-test was used to compare the groups before intervention. After intervention, ANCOVA test with baseline control was used