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Table 1 Descriptive Information by Treatment Modality Group (Statistical Tests: Face-to-Face vs. Telepsychiatry Combined)

From: Treatment provision for adults with ADHD during the COVID-19 pandemic: an exploratory study on patient and therapist experience with on-site sessions using face masks vs. telepsychiatric sessions

  face-to-face
(n = 29)
videoconferencing
(n = 11)
telephone
(n = 20)
p (Cohen’s d) a
Number of sessions 1.59 (0.87) 2.91 (1.81) 3.35 (1.39) .000 (1.30)b
Gender (% male) 48.3% 63.6% 60.0% .311 (0.26)c
Age 39.62 (11.22) 38.00 (9.89) 38.95 (12.26) .730 (0.09)b
Highest education     .067 (−)d
 Compulsory school 3.4% 9.1% 5.0%  
 Apprenticeship 27.6% 27.3% 25.0%  
 School-leaving examination 24.1% 18.2% 30.0%  
 University degree 44.8% 45.5% 40.0%  
No of psychiatric diagnoses (incl. ADHD) 1.66 (0.61) 1.55 (0.52) 1.80 (0.77) .749 (0.08)b
Comorbidities
 F10–19 6.9% 0.0% 10.0% 1.000 (−)d
 F30–39 34.5% 18.2% 20.0% .185 (0.35)c
 F40–49 20.7% 36.4% 15.0% .859 (0.05)c
 F60–69 0.0% 0.0% 20.0% .113 (−)d
GAF-scoree 67.59 (11.92) 72.55 (5.85) 67.95 (14.02) .519 (0.17)b
COVID-19 high risk group 10.3% 0.0% 15.0% 1.000 (−)d
Impact of COVID-19
 change to everyday life 3.62 (1.05) 4.00 (1.33) 4.10 (1.25) .145 (0.38)b
 distress 2.83 (1.10) 2.80 (1.32) 3.25 (1.33) .395 (0.22)b
 fear 2.38 (1.18) 2.60 (0.84) 2.70 (1.17) .329 (0.25)b
Allocation to treatment modality based on patient request     1.000 (0.00)c
 yes 75.9% 63.6% (77.8%)* 75.0%  
 no 24.1% 18.2% (22.2%)* 25.0%  
  1. Note: The values represent either the mean, with the standard deviation reported in brackets, or the percentage of cases within the relevant group. School leaving examinations are similar to A levels in the UK and qualify the individual to study at a university. *Information for 2 patients was missing in this group, which is why two percentages are reported. The first refers to N = 11 (total cases), the second to N = 9 (cases for which the information was available). aTo check for statistically significant a priori differences between groups, the face-to-face group was compared to the collapsed telepsychiatry groups (telephone and videoconferencing) because of the small sample size in the videoconferencing group. bTwo-samples t-test. cχ2 test. dFisher’s exact test. eAs data was provided by two therapists, a second t-test with Z standardized GAF scores (standardization within therapist) was conducted, which yielded similar results, t(58) = − 0.62, p = .541, d = 0.16