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Table 2 Descriptive analysis of each variable and association with depression scores

From: Depressive symptoms associated with COVID-19 preventive practice measures, daily activities in home quarantine and suicidal behaviors: Findings from a large-scale online survey in Bangladesh

Variables Total N = 13,654 Depression (Mean = 9.5; SD = 6.7)
n (%) Mean (SD) t/F p-value
COVID-19 related factors
Has anyone in your family been infected with COVID-19?
  Yes 417 (3.1) 12.2 (5.9) 94.41 < 0.001
  No 13,237 (96.9) 9.0 (6.7)   
Have you had a COVID-19 detection test?
  Yes 716 (5.2) 11.1 (6.2) 73.58 < 0.001
  No 12,938 (94.8) 8.9 (6.7)   
COVID-19 tests results
  Positive 286 (5.1) 11.6 (6.1) 26.52 < 0.001
  Negative 5297 (94.9) 9.5 (6.7)   
Have you had a fear that COVID-19 could infect you?
  Yes 9372 (68.6) 9.6 (6.7) 167.56 < 0.001
  No 4282 (31.4) 8.0 (6.7)   
Is the pandemic affecting your family income?
  Yes 9394 (68.8) 9.2 (6.8) 17.63 < 0.001
  No 4260 (31.2) 8.7 (6.5)   
Has anyone in your family lost their job during the pandemic?
  Yes 2547 (18.7) 10.5 (6.7) 149.02 < 0.001
  No 11,107 (81.3) 8.7 (6.7)   
Has there been a scarcity of food for your family during the pandemic?
  Yes 3337 (24.4) 10.5 (6.8) 201.25 < 0.001
  No 10,317 (75.6) 8.6 (6.6)   
Using handkerchief/tissue during sneezing or coughing
  Yes 11,504 (84.3) 8.9 (6.7) 37.46 < 0.001
  No 2150 (15.7) 9.9 (6.8)   
Sniffing the nose by the fold of elbows while sneezing and coughing
  Yes 11,703 (85.7) 9.0 (6.7) 12.95 < 0.001
  No 1951 (14.3) 9.6 (6.8)   
Discharging cough/sputum in a proper place
  Yes 11,997 (87.9) 8.8 (6.8) 98.50 < 0.001
  No 1657 (12.1) 10.6 (6.1)   
Washing hands with soaps or other cleaners
  Yes 12,910 (94.6) 8.9 (6.7) 101.96 < 0.001
  No 744 (5.4) 11.5 (5.9)   
Using a face mask while outside
  Yes 12,986 (95.1) 9.0 (6.7) 23.75 < 0.001
  No 668 (4.9) 10.3 (6.6)   
Discharging tissue in a proper place
  Yes 12,585 (92.2) 9.0 (6.7) 29.97 < 0.001
  No 1069 (7.8) 10.1 (6.4)   
Maintaining spatial distance
  Yes 12,654 (92.7) 8.9 (6.7) 56.04 < 0.001
  No 1000 (7.3) 10.6 (6.8)   
Maintaining hygiene
  Yes 12,265 (89.8) 9.0 (6.7) 10.70 0.001
  No 1389 (10.2) 9.6 (6.7)   
Lifestyle and activities in home quarantine
Sleeping hours
   < 7 h 2670 (19.6) 10.3 (6.7) 267.22 < 0.001
   > 9 h 1722 (12.6) 11.7 (6.9)   
  7–9 h 9262 (67.8) 8.2 (6.5)   
Smoking status
  Yes 2179 (16.0) 9.8 (6.6) 29.21 < 0.001
  No 11,475 (84.0) 8.9 (6.7)   
Internet using hours
   <  2 h 1665 (12.2) 7.9 (6.1) 114.01 < 0.001
  2–4 h 4245 (31.1) 8.0 (6.4)   
  5–6 h 3456 (25.3) 9.2 (6.4)   
   > 6 h 4288 (31.4) 10.4 (7.2)   
Attending online classes
  Yes 4853 (35.5) 8.9 (6.8) 3.34 0.068
  No 8801 (64.5) 9.1 (6.6)   
Playing videogames
  Yes 4648 (34.0) 9.5 (6.8) 28.35 < 0.001
  No 9006 (66.0) 8.8 (6.7)   
Engaging in online communication (chat, video calling)
  Yes 8807 (64.5) 9.2 (6.7) 12.79 < 0.001
  No 4847 (35.5) 8.8 (6.7)   
Watching movies, serials, short films, etc.
  Yes 10,620 (77.8) 9.1 (6.7) 3.18 0.075
  No 3034 (22.2) 8.9 (6.8)   
Studying
  Yes 7144 (52.3) 8.2 (6.6) 224.00 < 0.001
  No 6510 (47.7) 9.9 (6.7)   
Engaging in physical exercise
  Yes 6971 (51.1) 8.4 (6.4) 144.86 < 0.001
  No 6683 (48.9) 9.8 (7.0)   
Doing household chores
  Yes 10,481 (76.8) 8.8 (6.6) 60.22 < 0.001
  No 3173 (23.2) 9.9 (6.9)   
Spending time talking with family members
  Yes 12,114 (88.7) 8.8 (6.6) 128.91 < 0.001
  No 1540 (11.3) 10.9 (7.1)   
Suicidal behaviors
Suicide ideation
  Yes 1097 (8.0) 15.2 (7.1) 1082.00 < 0.001
  No 12,557 (92.0) 8.5 (6.4)   
Past suicidal thoughts
  Yes 1865 (13.7) 13.4 (7.2) 962.01 < 0.001
  No 11,789 (86.3) 8.4 (6.4)   
Suicidal attempt history
  Yes 1040 (7.6) 13.5 (7.0) 521.51 < 0.001
  No 12,614 (92.4) 8.7 (6.6)   
Family suicide history
  Yes 499 (3.7) 11.8 (6.4) 84.58 < 0.001
  No 13,155 (96.3) 9.0 (6.7)