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Table 2 Analysis of the association between demographic characteristics with depression and anxiety (based on HADS scores) among the study subjects using Chi-square test

From: An investigation of the association between religious coping, fatigue, anxiety and depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in Morocco: a web-based cross-sectional survey

Variable Depression χ2 OR 95% CI Anxiety χ2 OR 95% CI
Positive (n) Negative (n) Positive (n) Negative (n)
Age stages (years)
  ≤ 45 684 550 14.29*** 1.81*** 1.31–2.50 555 679 9.89*** 1.67** 1.20–2.32
  > 45 82 119     66 135    
Gender
 Female 376 248 20.49*** 1.63*** 1.31–2.04 341 283 57.35*** 2.28*** 1.81–2.85
 Male 390 421     280 531    
Marital status
 Married 307 301 3.333 0.81 0.65–1.01 259 349 0.15 0.95 0.76–1.19
 Not married 459 368     362 465    
Status as a parent
 Having children 226 243 7.24** 0.73** 0.58–0.91 195 274 0.72 0.90 0.71–1.13
 No children 540 426     426 540    
Education
 Higher education 711 621 7.46 1.00 0.66–1.53 574 758 0.16 0.90 0.59–1.38
 Primary or secondary education 55 48     47 56    
Living arrangements
 Alone 67 55 0.07 1.07 0.72–1.58 48 74 0.67 0.83 0.56–1.25
 Not alone 699 614     573 740    
Household income decline
 Yes 250 153 16.39*** 1.63*** 1.28–2.08 203 200 11.10*** 1.49*** 1.17–1.88
 No 516 516     418 614    
Life satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic
 Satisfied 529 595 81.96*** 0.28*** 0.21–0.37 420 704 72.66*** 0.33*** 0.25–0.43
 Not satisfied 237 74     201 110    
Looked up regular news
 Regularly 712 589 9.59** 1.79** 1.23–2.63 582 719 11.46*** 1.97*** 1.31–3.03
 Seldom 54 80     39 95    
Compliance with protective measures
 High 505 474 3.78 0.79 0.63–1.00 429 550 0.31 1.07 0.85–1.35
 Low 261 195     192 264    
Compliance with quarantine measures
 High 651 562 0.19 1.07 0.80–1.44 526 687 0.01 1.02 0.75–1.38
 Low 115 107     95 127    
Chronic illness
 Yes 76 47 3.46 1.45 0.98–2.17 71 52 10.81** 1.89*** 1.28–2.81
 No 690 622     550 762    
Fear of COVID-19
 High 303 151 46.85*** 2.24*** 1.75–2.85 286 168 104.04*** 3.28*** 2.56–4.16
 Low 463 518     335 646    
Fear of dying from COVID-19,
 High 87 13 47.38*** 6.46*** 3.57–12.5 88 12 85.64*** 11.03*** 5.88–25.0
 Low 679 656     533 802    
Know someone died from COVID-19
 Yes 15 19 0.85 0.68 0.32–1.43 15 19 3.37 1.03 0.49–2.17
 No 751 650     606 795    
  1. χ2 Chi-square test, OR odds ratio, CI Confidence interval
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001