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Table 5 Multivariate associations among smoking, depression, insomnia, and ADHD symptoms and smartphone addiction

From: Smartphone addiction and associated factors among postgraduate students in an Arabic sample: a cross-sectional study

  Odds ratio 95% CI P-value
  Lower Upper
Depression
 Clinically significant depression 1.261 0.562 2.829 0.574
 Moderately severe depression 1.43 0.508 4.023 0.498
 Severe depression 3.779 1.317 10.846 0.013*
 No depression** 1    
Insomnia
 Insomnia 2.113 1.372 3.255 0.001*
 No insomnia** 1    
ADHD symptoms
 Have ADHD symptoms 2.712 1.682 4.374 < 0.001*
 Have no ADHD symptoms** 1    
  1. * Significant P-value
  2. ** used as reference