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Table 1 Comparisons of characteristics in different effort-reward status groups among nurses in emergency department

From: Evaluating effort-reward imbalance among nurses in emergency departments: a cross-sectional study in China

  Total Effort-reward balance Effort-reward imbalance χ2 P
N (%) N (%) N (%)
Total 17,582 (100) 7093 (40.34) 10,489 (59.66)   
Sociodemographic characteristics
Age     145.78 < 0.001**
 <25 3493 (19.87) 1722 (24.28) 1771 (16.88)   
 25 ~ 34 10,540 (59.95) 4036 (56.90) 6504 (62.01)   
 >34 3549 (20.19) 1335 (18.82) 2214 (21.11)   
Sex     32.43 < 0.001**
 Male 1803 (10.25) 615 (8.67) 1188 (11.33)   
 Female 15,779 (89.75) 6478 (91.33) 9301 (88.67)   
Educational level     100.29 < 0.001**
 Vocational diploma or lessa 1105 (6.28) 534 (7.53) 571 (5.44)   
 Associate degreeb 8603 (48.93) 3686 (51.97) 4917 (46.88)   
 Bachelor degree or above 7874 (44.78) 2873 (40.50) 5001 (47.68)   
Marital status     55.96 < 0.001**
Unmarried/other 6714 (38.19) 2945 (41.52) 3769 (35.93)   
Married 10,868 (61.81) 4148 (58.48) 6720 (64.07)   
Work-related factors
Hospital level     11.33 0.010*
 Emergency centres 3338 (18.99) 1343 (18.93) 1995 (19.02)   
 Level I hospitals 728 (4.14) 333 (4.69) 395 (3.77)   
 Level II hospitals 6953 (39.55) 2828 (39.87) 4125 (39.33)   
 Level III hospitals 6563 (37.33) 2589 (36.50) 3974 (37.89)   
Title     105.66 < 0.001**
 None 2328 (13.24) 1116 (15.73) 1212 (11.55)   
 Junior 11,713 (66.62) 4754 (67.02) 6959 (66.35)   
 Intermediate or above 3541 (20.14) 1223 (17.24) 2318 (22.10)   
Monthly income (YUAN)     3.3 0.348
 ≤ 2499 2980 (16.95) 1236 (17.43) 1744 (16.63)   
 2500 ~ 4000 7583 (43.13) 3075 (43.35) 4508 (42.98)   
 4001 ~ 6000 4649 (26.44) 1849 (26.07) 2800 (26.69)   
 ≥ 6001 2370 (13.48) 933 (13.15) 1437 (13.70)   
Years of service     268.48 < 0.001**
 < 1 2540 (14.45) 1360 (19.17) 1180 (11.25)   
 1–5 7783 (44.27) 3183 (44.88) 4600 (43.86)   
 6–10 4573 (26.01) 1581 (22.29) 2992 (28.53)   
 ≥ 11 2686 (15.28) 969 (13.66) 1717 (16.37)   
Frequency of night shifts (per month)     242.99 < 0.001**
 0 ~ 5 5417 (30.81) 2537 (35.77) 2880 (27.46)   
 6 ~ 10 7719 (43.90) 3122 (44.02) 4597 (43.83)   
 11 ~ 15 3651 (20.77) 1243 (17.52) 2408 (22.96)   
 ≥ 16 795 (4.52) 191 (2.69) 604 (5.76)   
Shortage of nurses     933.82 < 0.001**
 Does not meet demands 8834 (50.24) 2435 (34.33) 6399 (61.01)   
 General 5231 (29.75) 2565 (36.16) 2666 (25.42)   
 Meets demands 3517 (20.00) 2093 (29.51) 1424 (13.58)   
Workplace verbal violence (times)     1300.51 < 0.001**
 0 5351 (30.43) 2975 (41.94) 2376 (22.65)   
 1 ~ 3 7369 (41.91) 2932 (41.35) 4437 (42.30)   
 ≥ 4 4862 (27.65) 1186 (16.72) 3676 (35.05)   
Workplace physical violence     265.11 < 0.001**
 Yes 2357 (13.41) 590 (8.32) 1767 (16.85)   
 No 15,225 (86.59) 6503 (91.68) 8722 (83.15)   
  1. * P value < 0.05, ** p value < 0.001
  2. aA vocational diploma refers that students graduating from senior middle school receive 2 years of education in vocational schools, or students graduating from junior middle school receive 3 years of education in vocational schools
  3. bAn associate degree refers that students graduating from senior middle school (grade year 10 to year 12) receive 3 years of education in college, or students graduating from junior middle school (grade year 7 to year 9) receive 5 years of education in college