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Table 3 Differences in autism symptoms in ASD children with and without common sleep problems

From: Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder: a multicenter survey

Item Bedtime Resistance,Mean ± SD/ Median (IQR) Z/t P Sleep Anxiety, Mean ± SD/ Median (IQR) Z/t P Sleep Onset Delay,Mean ± SD/ Median (IQR) Z/t P Daytime sleepiness, Mean ± SD/ Median (IQR) Z/t P
  (−) (+) (−) (+) (−) (+) (−) (+)
ABC
 Sensory stimuli 7 (3–11) 8 (3–12) −1.632 0.103 7 (3–11) 9 (4–12) −3.541 <0.001 7 (3–11) 8 (4.75–13) −3.551 <0.001 7 (3–11) 8.5 (5.25–13) −3.868 <0.001
 Sensorial relating 12.97 ± 7.76 12.74 ± 7.77 0.446 0.655 12.59 ± 7.7 13.89 ± 7.88 −2.425 0.015 12.41 ± 7.67 15.23 ± 7.76 −4.726 <0.001 12.5 ± 7.78 15.13 ± 7.26 −4.162 <0.001
 Body and object use 7 (3–12) 7 (3–12) −0.858 0.391 6 (2–12) 8 (4–13) −3.316 0.001 6 (3–12) 9 (3–14) −4.206 <0.001 7 (3–12) 7 (3–13) −1.328 0.184
 Language 11 (6–17) 10 (5–15) −2.553 0.011 11 (5–16) 11 (5–18) −1.302 0.193 11 (5–16) 12 (6–19) −2.166 0.030 11 (5–16) 13 (6–19) −2 0.046
 Social self-help 10.74 ± 5.23 10.56 ± 5.15 0.52 0.603 10.46 ± 5.19 11.42 ± 5.18 −2.675 0.008 10.44 ± 5.21 11.84 ± 5 −3.472 0.001 10.51 ± 5.23 11.69 ± 4.93 −2.793 0.005
 Total score 49 (35–66) 49 (33–66) −0.377 0.706 47.5 (34–64) 54 (38–71) −3.455 0.001 46 (33–65) 57 (42–75) −5.453 <0.001 49.74 ± 23.56 56.92 ± 24.31 −3.842 <0.001
SRS
 Social awareness 11.24 ± 3.31 11.9 ± 3.47 −2.836 0.005 11.18 ± 3.28 12.15 ± 3.52 −4.083 <0.001 11.14 ± 3.32 12.63 ± 3.27 −5.812 <0.001 11.19 ± 3.31 12.49 ± 3.4 −4.817 <0.001
 Social cognition 17.85 ± 4.83 18.56 ± 4.26 −2.317 0.021 17.68 ± 4.71 19.19 ± 4.53 −4.570 <0.001 17.82 ± 4.71 18.99 ± 4.57 −3.216 0.001 17.78 ± 4.75 19.33 ± 4.26 −4.112 <0.001
 Social communication 31.92 ± 9.15 33.73 ± 9.2 −2.838 0.005 31.68 ± 9.1 34.68 ± 9.12 −4.647 <0.001 31.79 ± 9.14 35 ± 8.96 −4.560 <0.001 31.78 ± 9.22 35.41 ± 8.41 −4.949 <0.001
 Social motivation 15 (11–19) 15 (11–19) −0.748 0.454 14 (11–18) 16 (12–20) −3.495 <0.001 14.92 ± 5.12 16.09 ± 5.04 −2.976 0.003 14.86 ± 5.09 16.52 ± 5.09 −4.041 <0.001
 Autistic mannerisms 13 (9–17) 13 (9–18) −0.3 0.764 12 (8.5–17) 14 (10–19) −4.548 <0.001 13 (9–17) 14.5 (10–19) −3.888 <0.001 12 (9–17) 15 (11–19) −4.55 <0.001
 Total score 89.35 ± 23.74 92.95 ± 23.39 −2.198 0.028 88.22 ± 23.18 97.1 ± 24.22 −5.369 <0.001 88.61 ± 23.59 97.72 ± 22.79 −5.014 <0.001 88.57 ± 23.6 98.95 ± 22.31 −5.488 <0.001
CARS
 Total score 33 (28–38) 31 (27–36) −3.084 0.002 32.91 ± 7.04 33.21 ± 7.07 −0.589 0.556 32.5 (28–37) 33 (29–38) −1.719 0.086 32.79 ± 6.94 34.25 ± 7.64 −2.322 0.02
Communication warning behavior
 Total score 42.34 ± 22.36 42.61 ± 21.08 −0.164 0.869 41 (24–58) 46 (32–61) −2.386 0.017 42 (24–58) 45.5 (28.5–62.75) −1.834 0.067 42 (24–58) 45.5 (31–63.25) −1.714 0.087