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Table 3 Probability that the cumulative duration of mechanical restraint and seclusion per case is > 8 h, stratified by age, unadjusted and adjusted for given variables

From: Evaluation of coercive measures in different psychiatric hospitals: the impact of institutional characteristics

  <  65 years ≥ 65 years
OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
Hosp A reference   reference  
Hosp B 2.1 (1.5,3.0) <  0.01 0.9 (0.5,1.6) 0.75
Hosp C 0.8 (0.6,1.1) 0.25 2.9 (1.5,5.7) <  0.01
Hosp D 0.8 (0.5,1.1) 0.18 0.9 (0.6,1.4) 0.65
Hosp A reference   reference  
Hosp B 3.4 (2.3,5.1) <  0.01 1.1 (0.6,2.0) 0.83
Hosp C 1.0 (0.7,1.5) 0.95 2.7 (1.4,5.5) <  0.01
Hosp D 1.1 (0.7,1.6) 0.75 1.0 (0.6,1.7) 0.87
Diagnosis ICD-10
 F0 reference   reference  
 F1 0.2 (0.1,0.5) <  0.01 0.6 (0.3,1.3) 0.19
 F2 0.8 (0.4,1.5) 0.52 0.9 (0.4,2.0) 0.87
 F3 0.8 (0.4,1.8) 0.65 2.1 (0.7,6.9) 0.21
 F4/5/6 0.8 (0.4,1.7) 0.54 omitted  
 F7/8 1.4 (0.6,3.2) 0.47 omitted  
Male sex 1.4 (1.1,1.9) 0.01 1.5 (1.0,2.3) 0.04
Patients per staff 1.0 (0.9,1.0) 0.07 0.9 (0.9,1.0) 0.13
Hosp A reference   reference  
Hosp B 2.6 (1.7,3.9) <  0.01 0.7 (0.4,1.5) 0.38
Hosp C 1.1 (0.7,1.5) 0.79 2.7 (1.4,5.5) <  0.01
Hosp D 1.1 (0.7,1.7) 0.55 1.0 (0.6,1.7) 0.99
Diagnosis ICD-10
 F0 reference   reference  
 F1 0.3 (0.2,0.5) <  0.01 0.7 (0.3,1.4) 0.29
 F2 0.7 (0.4,1.4) 0.32 0.8 (0.4,1.9) 0.66
 F3 0.9 (0.4,1.8) 0.70 1.7 (0.5,5.9) 0.37
 F4/5/6 0.8 (0.4,1.7) 0.62 omitted  
 F7/8 1.3 (0.6,3.2) 0.50 omitted  
Male sex 1.5 (1.1,2.0) 0.01 1.5 (1.0,2.3) 0.05
Patients per staff 1.0 (0.9,1.0) 0.11 1.0 (0.9,1.0) 0.22
Compulsory medication 1.0 (0.7,1.4) 0.88 1.2 (0.6,2.2) 0.67
Seclusion 4.8 (2.5,9.1) <  0.01 5.2 (1.3,20.6) 0.02
  1. Abbreviations: Hosp Hospital, OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval