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Table 4 Linear regression analysis with YSR Total Problems T-score at 3-year follow up as dependent variable and treatment procedures as covariates one at a time, adjusted for age and SES, differentiated by psychiatric disorders

From: Association of treatment procedures and resilience to symptom load three-years later in a clinical sample of adolescent psychiatric patients

     YSR Total Problems T-score at T2
Psychiatric disorders T1a    Treatment procedures Adjusted for age T1 and SES
  n (%)   n % β 95% CI p-value
Total sample
 Any psychiatric disorder 447   Psychotherapyb 299/424 (70.5) 0.5 0.3 to 0.7 < 0.001
    Medicationc 236/445 (53.0) −1.7 −7.4 to 4.0 0.566
 Anxiety disorders 151/447 (33.8) Psychotherapy 95/150 (63.3) 0.5 0.1 to 0.8 0.007
    Medication 56/150 (37.3) 9.0 −0.6 to 18.7 0.067
 Mood disorders 107/447 (23.9) Psychotherapy 60/106 (56.6) 0.3 −0.1 to 0.8 0.169
    Medication 52/106 (49.1) −2.1 −16.6 to 12.4 0.773
 ADHD 207/447 (46.3) Psychotherapy 146/207 (70.5) 0.7 0.4 to 1.0 < 0.001
    Medication 168/207 (81.2) −5.7 − 16.1 to 4.6 0.275
 Other psychiatric disorder 99/447 (22.1) Psychotherapy 72/99 (72.7) 0.6 0.1 to 1.0 0.011
    Medication 46/99 (46.5) −6.9 −20.5 to 6.7 0.313
Girls
 Any psychiatric disorder 254   Psychotherapy 165/242 (68.2) 0.4 0.2 to 0.7 0.002
    Medication 114/253 (45.1) −1.7 −10.0 to 6.6 0.692
 Anxiety disorders 103/254 (40.6) Psychotherapy 59/102 (57.8) 0.6 0.2 to 1.0 0.007
    Medication 36/102 (35.3) 7.4 −5.6 to 20.3 0.260
 Mood disorders 88/254 (34.7) Psychotherapy 51/88 (58.0) 0.2 −0.3 to −0.7 0.414
    Medication 44/88 (50.0) 0.4 −14.7 to 15.4 0.960
 ADHD 87/254 (34.3) Psychotherapy 62/87 (71.3) 0.7 0.3 to 1.2 0.002
    Medication 66/87 (75.9) −9.6 −25.4 to 6.1 0.226
 Other psychiatric disorder 49/254 (19.3) Psychotherapy 36/49 (73.5) 0.5 −0.1 to 1.0 0.103
    Medication 16/49 (32.7) 12.0 −11.3 to 35.3 0.304
Boys
 Any psychiatric disorder 193   Psychotherapy 134/182 (73.6) −0.1 −0.4 to 0.3 0.780
    Medication 122/192 (63.5) 7.4 0.7 to 14.2 0.032
 Anxiety disorders 48/193 (24.9) Psychotherapy 36/48 (75.0) −0.2 −0.9 to 0.4 0.451
    Medication 20/48 (41.7) 12.9 −0.5 to 26.3 0.059
 Mood disorders 19/193 (9.8) Psychotherapy 9/18 (50.0) −0.9 −3.2 to 0.4 0.141
    Medication 8/18 (44.4) −9.8 −34.0 to 14.5 0.347
 ADHD 120/193 (62.2) Psychotherapy 84/120 (70.0) 0.0 −0.5 to 0.6 0.972
    Medication 102/120 (85.0) 5.7 −7.3 to 18.7 0.385
 Other psychiatric disorder 50/193 (25.9) Psychotherapy 36/50 (72.0) −0.1 −0.9 to 0.6 0.767
    Medication 30/50 (60.0) −0.9 −16.7 to 15.0 0.913
  1. Note: Symptom load is measured by using Youth Self Report (YSR, Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment), Total Problem T-score, SES = Socioeconomic Status measured by level of mothers’ education (1 = lowest level of education, 9 = highest level of education), β = Regression Coefficient, CI = Confidence Interval
  2. a Psychiatric disorders include both primary and additional diagnoses
  3. b Psychotherapy by number of sessions: 1 session as the measurement unit
  4. c Medication includes medication for psychiatric disorders; according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes Yes/No