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Table 1 Demographic and psychological characteristics of study participants; mean [SD]; n (%)

From: Locus of control moderates the association of COVID-19 stress and general mental distress: results of a Norwegian and a German-speaking cross-sectional survey

  Norwegian sample
n = 1209-1225
German-speaking sample
n = 1522-1527
p
Age (years) 50.26 [13.16] 40.35 [16.66] <.001
Gender    <.001
 Women 897 (73.20) 993 (65.00)  
 Men 326 (26.60) 528 (34.60)  
 Divers 2 (0.20) 6 (0.40)  
Relationship status    <.001
 Married/partnered 683 (55.80) 953 (62.40)  
 Other 542 (44.20) 574 (37.60)  
Children    <.001
 No 252 (20.60) 975 (63.90)  
 Yes 971 (79.40) 552 (36.10)  
Living together status    .460
 Living alone 249 (20.30) 328 (21.50)  
 Living with others 976 (79.70) 1199 (78.50)  
Education:    <.001
 Secondary 19 (1.60) 190 (12.40)  
 Advanced 133 (10.90) 453 (29.70)  
 University 1073 (87.60) 884 (57.90)  
I have been infected with Sars CoV-2
 Yes 14 (1.10) 12 (0.80)  
 No / I do not know 1211 (98.90) 1515 (99.20)  
A close person has been infected    .336
 Yes 136 (11.10) 130 (8.50)  
 No / I do not know 1089 (88.90) 1397 (91.50) .022
LoC a)
 Internal 3.65 [0.87] 3.94 [0.81] <.001
 External 1.84 [0.75] 2.31 [0.86] <.001
COVID-19 stress b) 1.34 [0.82] 1.54 [0.89] <.001
General mental distress c) 2.51 [2.35] 3.48 [2.82] <.001
Elevated general mental distress c)
  > 5 111 (9.10) 291 (19.10) <.001
  > 3 355 (29.00) 628 (41.10) <.001
  > 2 551 (45.00) 861 (56.40) <.001
Depression c) 1.38 [1.33] 1.82 [1.52] <.001
Elevated depression (> 2) c) 175 (14.30) 346 (22.70) <.001
Anxiety c) 1.12 [1.28] 1.66 [1.57] <.001
Elevated anxiety (> 2) c) 123 (10.00) 321 (21.00) <.001
  1. aLoC measured by the IE-4 subscales LoC Internal and LoC External (range: 1–5)
  2. bAcute psychological stress due to COVID-19 measured by the COVID-19 stress scale (range: 0–5)
  3. cGeneral mental distress, depression, and anxiety measured by the PHQ-4. Total scale (range 0–12) with cut-offs > 5, > 3, > 2 for at least severe, moderate, and mild distress. Subscales depression (PHQ-2) and anxiety (GAD-2) (range 0–6), with cut-offs > 2 for elevated depression and anxiety