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Table 4 Simple moderation: LoC moderates COVID-19 stress predicting general mental distress

From: Locus of control moderates the association of COVID-19 stress and general mental distress: results of a Norwegian and a German-speaking cross-sectional survey

a. Unadjusted moderation Norwegian sample (n = 1225) German-speaking sample (n = 1527)
Regression analysis 1: Internal locus of control (LoC I)
  Coeff (SE) [95% CI] t p Coeff (SE) [95% CI] t p
Intercept 2.49 (0.05) [2.38; 2.59] 46.93 <.001 3.46 (0.06) [3.35; 3.57] 59.45 <.001
COVID-19 stress (IV) 1.72 (0.07) [1.59; 1.85] 26.31 <.001 1.63 (0.07) [1.50; 1.76] 24.66 <.001
LoC I (Mod) −0.21 (0.06) [−0.33; − 0.09] −3.40 <.001 − 0.75 (0.07) [− 0.89; − 0.61] −10.32 <.001
COVID-19 stress x LoC I −0.22 (0.07) [− 0.35; − 0.09] −3.23 .001 −0.23 (0.07) [− 0.36; − 0.10] −3.39 <.001
Regression analysis 2: External locus of control (LoC E)
  Coeff (SE) [95% CI] t p Coeff (SE) [95% CI] t p
Intercept 2.44 (0.05) [2.33; 2.54] 45.13 <.001 3.43 (0.06) [3.32; 3.55] 57.87 <.001
COVID-19 stress (IV) 1.58 (0.07) [1.45; 1.71] 23.18 <.001 1.55 (0.07) [1.42; 1.68] 22.99 <.001
LoC E (Mod) 0.39 (0.07) [0.25; 0.54] 5.28 <.001 0.71 (0.07) [0.57; 0.84] 10.05 <.001
COVID-19 stress x LoC E 0.35 (0.08) [0.20; 0.50] 4.65 <.001 0.27 (0.07) [0.13; 0.41] 3.83 <.001
b. Adjusted moderation Norwegian sample (n = 1205) German-speaking sample (n = 1516)
Regression analysis 1: Internal locus of control (LoC I)
  Coeff (SE) [95% CI] t p Coeff (SE) [95% CI] t p
Intercept 3.84 (0.36) [3.14; 4.55] 10.69 <.001 4.24 (0.34) [3.57; 4.90] 12.51 <.001
COVID-19 stress (IV) 1.63 (0.07) [1.50; 1.76] 24.66 <.001 1.52 (0.07) [1.39; 1.66] 22.32 <.001
LoC I (Mod) −0.26 (0.06) [−0.38; −0.14] −4.30 <.001 −0.84 (0.08) [−0.99; −0.70] −11.21 <.001
COVID-19 stress x LoC I −0.20 (0.07) [− 0.33; − 0.06] −2.91 .004 −0.23 (0.07) [− 0.36; − 0.10] −3.44 <.001
Age (years) −0.02 (0.01) [− 0.03; − 0.01] − 4.04 <.001 −0.01 (0.01) [− 0.02; − 0.00] − 2.55 .011
Gender a) 0.21 (0.12) [− 0.03; 0.44] 1.75 .080 0.00 (0.12) [− 0.24; 0.25] 0.03 .979
Relationship status b) 0.01 (0.13) [−0.25; 0.26] 0.04 .969 0.06 (0.14) [−0.22; 0.33] 0.40 .689
Children c) −0.22 (0.16) [− 0.53; 0.09] −1.39 .166 − 0.31 (0.16) [− 0.62; 0.01] −1.88 .060
Living together status d) − 0.26 (0.16) [− 0.58; 0.06] − 1.62 .105 −0.00 (0.17) [− 0.33; 0.33] −0.02 .983
Education e) −0.45 (0.16) [− 0.77; − 0.14] − 2.82 .005 −0.33 (0.12) [− 0.57; − 0.10] − 2.81 .005
Regression analysis 2: External locus of control (LoC E)
  Coeff (SE) [95% CI] t p Coeff (SE) [95% CI] t p
Intercept 3.65 (0.36) [2.95; 4.34] 10.28 <.001 4.23 (0.34) [3.56; 4.90] 12.44 <.001
COVID-19 stress (IV) 1.50 (0.07) [1.37; 1.64] 21.81 <.001 1.46 (0.07) [1.32; 1.59] 20.82 <.001
LoC E (Mod) 0.39 (0.07) [0.25; 0.54] 5.31 <.001 0.75 (0.07) [0.61; 0.89] 10.51 <.001
COVID-19 stress x LoC E 0.37 (0.08) [0.22; 0.51] 4.88 <.001 0.28 (0.07) [0.15; 0.42] 3.99 <.001
Age (years) −0.02 (0.01) [−0.03; −0.01] −3.73 <.001 −0.01 (0.01) [− 0.02; 0.001] −1.83 .067
Gender a) 0.24 (0.12) [0.01; 0.47] 2.01 .045 −0.02 (0.13) [− 0.27; 0.22] −0.18 .855
Relationship status b) 0.02 (0.13) [−0.23; 0.27] 0.16 .870 0.05 (0.14) [−0.22; 0.33] 0.38 .706
Children c) −0.22 (0.16) [− 0.53; 0.08] −1.44 .151 − 0.37 (0.16) [− 0.69; − 0.05] −2.30 .022
Living together status d) −0.30 (0.16) [− 0.61; 0.02] −1.86 .063 −0.24 (0.17) [− 0.57; 0.09] −1.43 .153
Education e) −0.41 (0.16) [− 0.72; − 0.10] −2.60 .009 −0.18 (0.12) [− 0.42; 0.05] −1.55 .123
  1. a) 1 = male, 2 = female; b) 0 = not partnered, 1 = married/partnered; c) 0 = no children, 1 = children; d) 0 = living alone, 1 = living with somebody; e) 0 = secondary/advanced, 1 = university