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Table 1 Characteristics of children who died and paired cohort with their parents

From: Gender differences in the risk of depressive disorders following the loss of a young child: a nationwide population-based longitudinal study

Characteristics Deceased children Non-deceased children P-value
n % n %
Total 5881 100.00 23,524 100.00  
Child’s and family characteristics
 Gender      1.0000
  Male 3262 55.47 13,048 55.47  
  Female 2619 44.53 10,476 44.53  
 Age at death      1.0000
  1–2 years 1792 30.47 7168 30.47  
  3–6 years 2250 38.26 9000 38.26  
  7–12 years 1839 31.27 7356 31.27  
 Diagnosis of catastrophic illness before death      < 0.001
  Less than one year 856 14.56 162 0.69  
  One or more years 1861 31.64 320 1.36  
  No 3164 53.80 23,042 97.95  
 Income levelb     < 0.001
  Poverty 1951 33.17 3898 16.57  
  Medium 2448 41.63 11,909 50.32  
  High 1257 21.37 7087 30.13  
  Missing 225 3.83 630 2.68  
 Urbanizationb    < 0.001
  Urban 1515 25.76 6448 27.41  
  Suburban 3614 61.45 14,561 61.90  
  Rural 650 11.05 2054 8.73  
  Missing 102 1.73 461 1.96  
 Premium payerb     < 0.001
  Father 3247 55.21 12,268 52.15  
  Mother 2032 34.55 10,354 44.01  
  Othera 488 8.30 378 1.61  
  Missing 114 1.94 524 2.23  
Maternal characteristics (N = 19,499)
 Maternal age at child’s death      0.009
   < 35 years 1667 55.81 9633 58.34  
   ≥ 35 years 1320 44.19 6879 41.66  
 Maternal depressive disorders before child’s deathc     < 0.001
  Yes 71 2.38 94 0.57  
  No 2916 97.62 16,418 99.43  
 Maternal chronic physical conditiond      < 0.001
  Yes 1060 35.49 1875 11.36  
  No 1927 64.51 14,637 88.64  
 Treatment seeking for depressive disorders after child’s deathe < 0.001
  Yes 149 4.99 130 0.79  
  No 2838 95.01 16,382 99.21  
Paternal characteristics (N = 22,011)
 Paternal age at child’s death      < 0.001
   < 35 years 1338 31.42 6534 36.81  
   ≥ 35 years 2920 68.58 11,219 63.19  
 Paternal depressive disorders before child’s deathc     < 0.001
  Yes 78 1.83 49 0.28  
  No 4180 98.17 17,704 99.72  
 Paternal chronic physical conditiond      < 0.001
  Yes 1650 38.75 2214 12.47  
  No 2608 61.25 15,539 87.53  
 Treatment seeking for depressive disorders after child’s deathe    < 0.001
  Yes 104 2.44 92 0.52  
  No 4154 97.56 17,661 99.48  
  1. a Refers to insurance covered under the name of the child himself or herself or the name of a grandparent
  2. b In the year before the index child’s death
  3. c Depressive disorder (ICD-9-CM codes: 296.2X, 296.3X, 300.4X, and 311) is confirmed by receiving a diagnosis by a psychiatrist in (i) two or more outpatient services or (ii) one inpatient service within three years before the index child’s death
  4. d Chronic physical condition — including malignant neoplasms, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, hypertensive disease, bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and atherosclerosis — were obtained from the three-year reimbursement records prior to the index child’s death
  5. e Depressive disorder (ICD-9-CM codes: 296.2X, 296.3X, 300.4X, and 311) is confirmed by receiving a diagnosis by a psychiatrist in (i) two or more outpatient services or (ii) one inpatient service in the three years after the index child’s death