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Table 2 Child loss in relation to subsequent treatment of major depressive disorders in mothers (N = 19,499)

From: Gender differences in the risk of depressive disorders following the loss of a young child: a nationwide population-based longitudinal study

    Crude HR P-value Model Ia Model IIa
Variables n % aHR 95% CI aHR 95% CI
Children’s characteristics
 Death
  Yes 2987 15.32 6.54 < 0.001 6.06*** 4.47–8.21 4.71*** 3.35–6.64
  No 16,512 84.68 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Diagnosis of catastrophic illness
  One year or more 1198 6.14 4.86 < 0.001 1.32 0.93–1.87 1.17 0.80–1.73
  Less than one year 576 2.95 2.72 < 0.001 0.77 0.44–1.34 0.58 0.30–1.10
  No 17,725 90.90 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Family characteristics
 Income levelb
  High 5708 29.27 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Medium 9605 49.26 1.43 0.025 1.21 0.88–1.67 1.40 0.98–2.00
  Poverty 3686 18.90 2.32 < 0.001 1.30 0.91–1.88 1.20 0.80–1.81
 Urbanizationb
  Urban 5655 29.00 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Suburban 12,124 62.18 1.31 0.068 1.33 0.99–1.78 1.36 0.99–1.88
  Rural 1444 7.41 1.62 0.042 1.50 0.94–2.41 1.61 0.94–2.75
 Linkage with father in health insurance
  Yes 12,105 62.08 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  No 7394 37.92 1.33 0.021 1.00 0.77–1.29 0.98 0.70–1.36
Maternal characteristics
 Age at child’s death
   < 35 years 11,300 57.95 1.00     1.00  
   ≥ 35 years 8199 42.05 1.35 0.018    1.26 0.94–1.69
 Premium payer (mother)c
  Yes 12,386 63.52 1.00     1.00  
  No 6753 34.63 1.14 0.293    1.34 0.97–1.86
 Depression disordersd
  Yes 165 0.85 65.1 < 0.001    39.2*** 26.6–57.8
  No 19,334 99.15 1.00     1.00  
 Chronic physical conditione
  Yes 2935 15.05 8.15 < 0.001    3.72*** 2.80–4.94
  No 16,564 84.95 1.00     1.00  
  1. a Model I adjusted for children’s listed characteristics, gender, and age; Model II adjusted for children’s and maternal characteristics; ***P < 0.001; **P < 0.01; *P < 0.05
  2. b Within the year before the index child’s death
  3. c “No” refers to health insurance covered by the father, children themselves, and grandparents
  4. d Depressive disorder (ICD-9-CM codes: 296.2X, 296.3X, 300.4X, and 311) is confirmed by receiving a diagnosis by a psychiatrist in (i) two or more outpatient services or (ii) one inpatient service within three years before the index child’s death
  5. e Chronic physical condition — including malignant neoplasms, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, hypertensive disease, bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and atherosclerosis — were obtained from the three-year reimbursement records prior to the index child’s death