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Table 3 Child loss in relation to subsequent treatment of major depressive disorders in fathers (N = 22,011)

From: Gender differences in the risk of depressive disorders following the loss of a young child: a nationwide population-based longitudinal study

    Crude HR P-value Model Ia Model IIa
Variables N % aHR 95% CI aHR 95% CI
Children’s characteristics
 Death
  Yes 4258 19.34 4.71 < 0.001 4.47*** 3.15–6.34 1.93** 1.27–2.95
  No 17,753 80.66 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Diagnosis of catastrophic illness
  One year or more 731 3.32 3.15 < 0.001 1.21 0.68–2.14 1.12 0.57–2.22
   Less than one year 1646 7.48 2.83 < 0.001 0.98 0.64–1.52 1.13 0.68–1.87
  No 19,634 89.20 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Family characteristics
 Income levelb
  High 6265 28.46 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Medium 10,637 48.33 1.22 0.302 1.21 0.83–1.76 1.23 0.81–1.86
  Poverty 4597 20.89 1.86 0.003 1.42 0.94–2.15 1.52 0.95–2.43
 Urbanizationb
  Urban 5786 26.29 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Suburban 13,743 62.44 1.18 0.353 1.12 0.79–1.58 1.29 0.86–1.92
  Rural 2112 9.60 1.02 0.939 0.97 0.55–1.72 1.09 0.58–2.05
 Linkage with mother in health insurance
  Yes 12,105 55.00 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  No 9906 45.00 1.51 0.005 1.01 0.75–1.38 0.92 0.62–1.36
Paternal characteristics
 Age at child’s death
   < 35 years 7872 35.76 1.00     1.00  
   ≥ 35 years 14,139 64.24 1.39 0.047    0.98 0.68–1.43
 Premium payer (father)c
  Yes 15,515 70.49 1.00     1.00  
  No 6129 27.85 0.90 0.524    0.69 0.44–1.07
 Depressive disorders before child’s deathd
  Yes 127 0.58 117.3 < 0.001    56.0*** 34.5–90.8
  No 21,884 99.42 1.00     1.00  
 Chronic physical conditione
  Yes 3864 17.55 7.91 < 0.001    4.07*** 2.90–5.73
  No 18,147 82.45 1.00     1.00  
  1. a Model I adjusted for children’s listed characteristics, gender, and age; Model II adjusted for children’s and paternal characteristics; ***P < 0.001; **P < 0.01; *P < 0.05
  2. b Within the year before the index child’s death
  3. c “No” refers to health insurance covered by the mother, children themselves, and grandparents
  4. d Depressive disorder (ICD-9-CM codes: 296.2X, 296.3X, 300.4X, and 311) is confirmed by receiving a diagnosis by a psychiatrist in (i) two or more outpatient services or (ii) one inpatient service within three years before the index child’s death
  5. e Chronic physical condition — including malignant neoplasms, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, hypertensive disease, bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and atherosclerosis — were obtained from the three-year reimbursement records prior to the index child’s death