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Table 2 Bivariate and multivariate generalized linear regression of the effect of depressive symptoms on average pain severitya (n = 288)

From: The effect of depressive symptoms on pain in a substance-using population with persistent pain: a cross-sectional cohort study

  Unadjusted Adjusted
Characteristic β (95% CI) p - value β (95% CI) p - value
Depressive symptomsa (Moderate-Severe vs. Mild-None) 0.36 (− 0.24–0.95) 0.245 0.22 (− 0.38–0.82) 0.479
PTSDb (Yes vs. No) 0.01 (− 0.52–0.55) 0.959   
Anxietya (Moderate-Severe vs. Mild-None) 0.41 (− 0.15–0.98) 0.155   
Age (≥ Median vs. < Median) − 0.30 (− 0.83–0.22) 0.258   
Sex (Male vs. Female) − 0.72 (− 1.27 - -0.17) 0.010 − 0.67 (− 1.22 - -0.12) 0.019
Race (White vs. BIPOC or other) − 0.49 (− 1.01–0.04) 0.071   
Highest education completed (≥ vs. < High school) − 0.35 (− 0.88–0.17) 0.188   
Homelessc (Yes vs. No) 0.59 (− 0.19–1.37) 0.138   
Incarceratedc (Yes vs. No) 0.16 (−1.16–1.48) 0.809   
≥ Daily heroin usec (Yes vs. No) 0.46 (− 0.18–1.10) 0.158   
≥ Daily stimulant usec (Yes vs. No) 0.54 (0.01–1.07) 0.048 0.45 (− 0.09–0.99) 0.107
≥ Daily non-medical prescription opioid usec (Yes vs. No) 1.29 (− 0.41–3.00) 0.138   
≥ Daily cannabis usec (Yes vs. No) 0.17 (− 0.44–0.78) 0.582   
Heavy alcohol usec (Yes vs. No) 0.16 (− 0.63–0.94) 0.698   
Overdosec (Yes vs. No) 0.36 (− 0.39–1.11) 0.350   
Binge drug usec (Yes vs. No) 0.29 (−0.27–0.86) 0.310   
Injection drug usec (Yes vs. No) 0.20 (−0.34–0.75) 0.461   
Inability to access addiction treatmentc (Yes vs. No) 0.56 (−1.15–2.28) 0.520   
Barriers to accessing healthcarec (Yes vs. No) 0.47 (−0.22–1.16) 0.183   
Currently on pain medication (Yes vs. No) 0.40 (−0.13–0.92) 0.141   
Cohort (VIDUS vs. ACCESS) 0.02 (−0.51–0.55) 0.936   
  1. a Denotes activities/events within the week prior to the participant’s interview
  2. b Denotes activities/events within the month prior to the participant’s interview
  3. c Denotes activities/events within the 6 months prior to the participant’s interview