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Table 3 Bivariate and multivariate generalized linear regression of the effect of depressive symptoms on average pain interferencea (n = 288)

From: The effect of depressive symptoms on pain in a substance-using population with persistent pain: a cross-sectional cohort study

  Unadjusted Adjustedα
Characteristic β (95% CI) p - value β (95% CI) p - value
Depressive symptomsb (Moderate-Severe vs. Mild-None) 1.49 (0.72–2.26) < 0.001 1.24 (0.33–2.15) 0.008
PTSDc (Yes vs. No) 0.80 (0.11–1.49) 0.024 0.28 (−0.42–0.98) 0.437
Anxietyb (Moderate-Severe vs. Mild-None) 0.94 (0.20–1.68) 0.013 0.13 (− 0.74–1.00) 0.762
Age (≥ Median vs. < Median) −0.08 (− 0.78–0.61) 0.818   
Sex (Male vs. Female) − 0.85 (− 1.58 - -0.13) 0.022 −0.59 (− 1.30–0.12) 0.106
Race (White vs. BIPOC or other) 0.00 (− 0.70–0.70) 0.999   
Highest education completed (≥ vs. < High school) −0.20 (− 0.89–0.50) 0.581   
Homelessc (Yes vs. No) 1.05 (0.03–2.06) 0.045   
Incarceratedc (Yes vs. No) −0.34 (− 2.07–1.40) 0.705   
≥ Daily heroin usec (Yes vs. No) 1.53 (0.71–2.35) < 0.001 1.26 (0.47–2.05) 0.002
≥ Daily stimulant usec (Yes vs. No) 0.93 (0.23–1.63) 0.010   
≥ Daily non-medical prescription opioid usec (Yes vs. No) 1.40 (−0.85–3.64) 0.225   
≥ Daily cannabis usec (Yes vs. No) −0.07 (− 0.87–0.73) 0.858   
Heavy alcohol usec (Yes vs. No) 0.18 (−0.85–1.22) 0.730   
Overdosec (Yes vs. No) 1.40 (0.42–2.38) 0.005 1.02 (0.08–1.96) 0.034
Binge drug usec (Yes vs. No) 0.54 (−0.21–1.28) 0.158   
Injection drug usec (Yes vs. No) 1.22 (0.53–1.92) < 0.001   
Inability to access addiction treatmentc (Yes vs. No) 2.10 (−0.14–4.34) 0.067   
Barriers to accessing healthcarec (Yes vs. No) 0.77 (−0.14–1.67) 0.098   
Currently on pain medication (Yes vs. No) 0.88 (0.20–1.57) 0.012 1.14 (0.48–1.81) < 0.001
Cohort (VIDUS vs. ACCESS) 0.77 (0.08–1.46) 0.029   
  1. a Denotes activities/events within the 24 h prior to the participant’s interview
  2. b Denotes activities/events within the week prior to the participant’s interview
  3. c Denotes activities/events within the month prior to the participant’s interview
  4. c Denotes activities/events within the 6 months prior to the participant’s interview
  5. α In an additional sensitivity analysis excluding PTSD and anxiety in an adjusted model, the estimates for the remaining variables were: depressive symptoms (β = 1.46 [95% CI: 0.68–2.23], p < 0.001), ≥ daily stimulant use (β = 0.69 [95% CI: 0.01–1.37], p = 0.049), overdose (β = 1.08 [95% CI: 1.12–2.03], p = 0.028), currently on pain medication (β = 1.15 [95% CI: 0.48–1.81], p < 0.001)