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Table 5 Binary regression analysis of the mediating effect of pain

From: Relationship between chronic diseases and depression: the mediating effect of pain

Variable Model 1 (n = 15,213) Model 2 (n = 15,213) Model 3a (n = 4596)
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Sex (Male)
 Female 1.666*** (1.546–1.795) 1.428*** (1.318–1.546) 1.300*** (1.138–1.486)
Age (70–101)
 45–59 1.189** (1.067–1.325) 1.107 (0.986–1.242) 1.011 (0.838–1.220)
 60–69 1.144* (1.028–1.272) 1.100 (0.982–1.233) 1.057 (0.877–1.273)
Education (High school and above)
 Uneducated 2.456*** (2.139–2.819) 2.033*** (1.758–2.351) 1.621***(1.253–2.097)
 Primary school 1.930*** (1.676–2.222) 1.641*** (1.415–1.904) 1.354* (1.040–1.763)
 Middle school 1.530*** (1.325–1.766) 1.421*** (1.222–1.652) 1.265 (0.963–1.661)
Marital status (Married)
 Unmarried 1.496*** (1.344–1.665) 1.489*** (1.328–1.670) 1.426*** (1.182–1.722)
Urbanity (Rural)
 Urban 0.669*** (0.619–0.724) 0.734*** (0.675–0.798) 0.751*** (0.654–0.862)
Employment status (Yes)
 No 0.940 (0.870–1.016) 0.915* (0.842–0.994) 0.871* (0.761–0.997)
Insurance situation (Yes)
 No 1.178** (1.058–1.312) 1.141* (1.017–1.281) 1.120 (0.926–1.354)
Chronic disease (No chronic disease)
 One chronic disease 1.562*** (1.387–1.759) 1.332*** (1.177–1.508) 1.149 (0.887–1.488)
 Two or more chronic diseases 2.777*** (2.497–3.090) 1.777*** (1.587–1.989) 1.478** (1.170–1.867)
Pain severity (No pain)
 Mild pain   3.124*** (2.809–3.474)  
 Moderate to severe pain   6.421*** (5.834–7.078) 2.147 *** (1.889–2.440)
Take steps to relieve pain (Yes)
 No    1.149 (0.996–1.325)
  1. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001
  2. aModels 1 and 2 use full samples. Model 3 uses pain samples