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Table 2 The comparisons of baseline variables between three loneliness groupsa

From: Trajectories of loneliness and objective social isolation and associations between persistent loneliness and self-reported personal recovery in a cohort of secondary mental health service users in the UK

Variables Loneliness groups  
  Persistent loneliness group
(Group 1)
Intermittent loneliness group
(Group 2)
Never loneliness group
(Group 3)
 
  Mean (SD) or % N Mean (SD) or % N Mean (SD) or % N P value 95% CI
Age 40.90 (11.49) 36 36.54 (12.25) 75 41.95 (12.68) 113 Group 1 vs. Group 3: 0.66
Group 2 vs. Group 3: 0.004b
Group 1 vs. Group 2: 0.08
Group 1 (37.01, 44.79)
Group 2 (33.72, 39.36)
Group 3 (39.58, 44.31)
Gender        0.25  
 Male 27.78% 10 44.00% 33 40.71% 46   
 Female 72.22% 26 5.00% 42 59.29% 67   
Ethnicity        0.77  
 White British/Irish/other 62.86% 22 56.00% 42 65.49% 74   
 Black, Black British/Caribbean/African/other 17.14% 6 25.33% 19 20.35% 23   
 Asian, Asian British/Indian/ Pakistani/Bangladeshi/ other, Chinese 11.43% 4 9.33% 7 5.31% 6   
 Mixed White/Black Caribbean, mixed White/Black African, mixed White/Asian, other mixed, other ethnic groups 8.57% 3 9.33% 7 8.85% 10   
Marital status        < 0.001  
 Single/Separated/divorced/widowed 88.89% 32 86.87% 65 61.95% 70   
 Married/Cohabiting 11.11% 4 13.33% 10 38.05% 43   
UK born        0.99  
 No 25.71% 9 24.332% 18 25.00% 28   
 Yes 74.29% 26 75.68% 56 75.00% 84   
Housing        0.49  
 Permanent/supported accommodation 100% 36 96.00% 72 96.46% 109   
 Unstable accommodation 0% 0 4.00% 3 3.54% 4   
Contact with children under 16        0.78  
 No contact 2.78% 1 8.00% 6 6.19% 7   
 Contact with dependent children 27.78% 10 20.00% 15 22.12% 25   
 Having no children 69.44% 25 72.00% 54 71.68% 81   
Educational attainment        0.11  
 No qualification 2.71% 9 13.33% 10 13.27% 15   
 Other qualification 37.14% 13 60.00% 45 48.67% 55   
 Degree 37.14% 13 26.67% 20 38.05% 43   
Employment/education status        0.002  
 Not in employment/education/full time caring role 68.57% 24 46.58% 34 34.51% 39   
 Yes 31.43% 11 53.42% 39 65.49% 74   
Baseline loneliness score 27.77 (2.13) 36 23.52 (3.76) 75 19.28 (3.15) 113 Group 1 vs. Group 3: <.001
Group 2 vs. Group 3: <.001
Group 1 vs. Group 2: <.001
Group 1 (27.05, 28.49)
Group 2 (22.66, 24.39)
Group 3 (18.69, 19.87)
Baseline social network size 3.19 (2.10) 36 4.73 (2.37) 75 5.69 (1.93) 113 Group 1 vs. Group 3: <.001
Group 2 vs. Group 3: 0.003
Group 1 vs. Group 2: 0.001
Group 1 (2.49, 3.90)
Group 2 (4.19, 5.28)
Group 3 (5.33, 6.05)
Numbers of psychiatric inpatient hospitalisations        0.49  
 Never 69.44% 25 64.00% 48 59.29% 67   
 Once 19.44% 7 13.33% 10 15.93% 18   
 More than 2 times 11.11% 4 22.67% 17 24.78% 28   
Number of years since first contact mental health services        0.08  
 Less than 3 months 5.56% 2 18.67% 14 17.70% 20   
 3 months – 2 years 5.56% 2 22.67% 17 15.04% 17   
 2–10 years 41.67% 15 32.00% 24 32.74% 37   
 More than 10 years 47.22% 17 26.67% 20 34.51% 39   
Current diagnosis        0.09  
 Psychosis or bipolar disordersc 19.44% 7 21.92% 16 39.09% 43   
 Depression or anxiety disordersd 36.11% 13 30.14% 22 21.82% 24   
 Personality disorderse 16.67% 6 13.70% 10 8.18% 9   
 Other diagnosis 27.78% 10 34.25% 25 30.91% 34   
Baseline BPRS total score 51.19 (12.62) 36 44.77 (9.33) 75 39.79 (9.23) 112 Group 1 vs. Group 3: <.001
Group 2 vs. Group 3: 0.0004
Group 1 vs. Group 2: 0.003
Group 1 (46.93, 55.46)
Group 2 (42.63, 46.92)
Group 3 (38.06, 41.51)
Baseline QPR total score 35.06 (13.92) 36 49.59 (16.83) 75 57.43 (15.65) 113 Group 1 vs. Group 3: <.001
Group 2 vs. Group 3: 0.0013
Group 1 vs. Group 2: <.001
Group 1 (30.34, 39.77)
Group 2 (45.71, 53.46)
Group 3 (54.52, 60.35)
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval, N number of participants, BPRS the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, QPR the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery
  2. a. t-test and chi-square test were conducted to examine the differences in baseline characteristics between three loneliness groups
  3. b. significant p-values are marked in bold
  4. c. Schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder or bipolar affective disorder or other psychosis
  5. d. Depression or Anxiety disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder
  6. e. Borderline or emotionally unstable personality disorder or other personality disorder