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Table 3 The comparison of baseline variables between three objective social isolation groupsa

From: Trajectories of loneliness and objective social isolation and associations between persistent loneliness and self-reported personal recovery in a cohort of secondary mental health service users in the UK

Variables Objective social isolation groups  
  Persistent social isolation group
(Group 1)
Intermittent social isolation group
(Group 2)
Never social isolation group
(Group 3)
 
  Mean (SD) or % N Mean (SD) or % N Mean (SD) or % N P value 95% CI
Age 43.76 (10.06) 28 40.29 (11.9) 72 38.92 (13.26) 124 Group 1 vs. Group 3: 0.07
Group 2 vs. Group 3: 0.47
Group 1 vs. Group 2: 0.18
Group 1 (39.86, 47.66)
Group 2 (37.48, 43.10)
Group 3 (36.57, 41.28)
Gender        0.23  
 Male 25% 7 43.06% 31 41.13% 51   
 Female 75% 21 56.94% 41 58.87% 73   
Ethnicity        0.75  
 White British/Irish/other 50% 14 59.15% 42 66.13% 82   
 Black, Black British/Caribbean/African/other 28.57% 8 22.54% 16 19.35% 24   
 Asian, Asian British/Indian/ Pakistani/Bangladeshi/ other, Chinese 7.14% 2 8.45% 6 7.26% 9   
 Mixed White/Black Caribbean, mixed White/Black African, mixed White/Asian, other mixed, other ethnic groups 14.29% 4 9.86% 7 7.26% 9   
Marital status        0.06  
 Single/Separated/divorced/widowed 78.57% 22 83.33% 60 68.55% 85   
 Married/ Cohabiting 21.43% 6 16.67% 12 31.45% 39   
UK born        0.02b  
 No 42.86% 12 28.17% 20 18.85% 23   
 Yes 57.14% 16 71.83% 51 81.25% 99   
Housing       0.59  
 Permanent/supported accommodation 96.43% 27 98.61% 71 95.97% 119   
 Unstable accommodation 3.57% 1 1.39% 1 4.03% 5   
Contact with children under 16       0.88  
 No contact 7.14% 2 5.56% 4 6.45% 8   
 Contact with dependent children 17.86% 5 26.39% 19 20.97% 26   
 Having no children 75.00% 21 68.06% 49 72.58% 90   
Educational attainment       0.18  
 No qualification 28.57% 8 15.49% 11 12.10% 15   
 Other qualification 35.71% 10 47.89% 34 55.65% 69   
 Degree 35.71% 10 36.62% 26 32.26% 40   
Employment/education status        0.01  
 Not in employment/education/full time caring role 67.86% 19 47.14% 33 36.59% 45   
 Yes 32.14% 9 52.86% 37 63.41% 78   
Baseline loneliness score 26.07 (3.78) 28 22.65 (4.31) 72 20.82 (4.19) 124 Group 1 vs. Group 3: <.001
Group 2 vs. Group 3: 0.004
Group 1 vs. Group 2: 0.0004
Group 1 (24.61, 27.54)
Group 2 (21.64, 23.66)
Group 3 (20.08, 21.57)
Baseline social network size 1.75 (0.97) 28 3.76 (1.78) 72 6.40 (1.50) 124 Group 1 vs. Group 3: <.001
Group 2 vs. Group 3: <.001
Group 1 vs. Group 2: <.001
Group 1 (1.38, 2.12)
Group 2 (3.35, 4.18)
Group 3 (6.13, 6.66)
Numbers of psychiatric inpatient hospitalisations        0.001  
 Never 82.14% 23 45.83% 33 67.74% 84   
 Once 14.29% 4 16.67% 12 15.32% 19   
More than 2 times 3.57% 1 37.50% 27 16.94% 21   
Number of years since first contact mental health services        0.08  
 Less than 3 months 17.86% 5 13.89% 10 16.94% 21   
 3 months – 2 years 17.86% 5 13.89% 10 16.94% 21   
 2–10 years 32.14% 9 23.61% 17 40.32% 50   
 More than 10 years 32.14% 9 48.61% 35 25.81% 32   
Current diagnosis        0.03  
 Psychosis or bipolar disorder c 14.81% 4 39.44% 28 28.10% 34   
 Depression or anxiety disordersd 37.04% 10 25.35% 18 25.62% 31   
 Personality disorderse 25.93% 7 9.86% 7 9.09% 11   
 Other diagnosis 22.22% 6 25.35% 18 37.19% 45   
Baseline BPRS total score 49.21 (10.82) 28 44.68 (11.48) 71 41.19 (9.54) 124 Group 1 vs. Group 3: 0.0001
Group 2 vs. Group 3: 0.02
Group 1 vs. Group 2: 0.08
Group 1 (45.02, 53.41)
Group 2 (41.96, 47.39)
Group 3 (39.49, 42.88)
Baseline QPR total score 41.54 (15.74) 28 50.71 (17.44) 72 53.69 (17.46) 124 Group 1 vs. Group 3: 0.001
Group 2 vs. Group 3: 0.25
Group 1 vs. Group 2: 0.02
Group 1 (45.02, 53.41)
Group 2 (50.58, 56.79)
Group 3 (41.96, 47.39)
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval, N number of participants, BPRS the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, QPR the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery
  2. a. t-test and chi-square test were conducted to examine the differences in baseline characteristics between three objective social isolation groups
  3. b. significant p-values are marked in bold
  4. c. Schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder or bipolar affective disorder or other psychosis
  5. d. Depression or Anxiety disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder
  6. e. Borderline or emotionally unstable personality disorder or other personality disorder