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Table 4 Linear regression between three loneliness groups and 18-month QPR, controlling for baseline variablesa

From: Trajectories of loneliness and objective social isolation and associations between persistent loneliness and self-reported personal recovery in a cohort of secondary mental health service users in the UK

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
  Coef.
(95% CI)
P- value Coef.
(95% CI)
P-value Coef.
(95% CI)
p-value Coef.
(95% CI)
P-value Coef.
(95% CI)
p-value
Loneliness group
 Never severely lonely group Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Intermittently severely lonely group −9.80
(− 13.59, −6.02)
<.001b − 9.69
(− 13.57, −5.81)
<.001 −9.73
(− 13.88, −5.59)
<.001 −8.73
(− 12.85, − 4.61)
<.001 −7.78
(−11.80, − 3.75)
<.001
 Persistently severely lonely group −21.75
(− 26.58, − 16.93)
<.001 − 21.46
(− 26.70, − 16.22)
<.001 −19.83
(− 25.55, − 14.12)
<.001 −16.27
(− 22.16, − 10.37)
<.001 − 12.83
(−18.83, − 6.83)
<.001
Psychosocial variable
 Social network size    0.12
(−.69, .93)
0.77 0.05
(−.82, .91)
0.92 0.14
(−.72, 1.01)
0.75 0.05
(−.79, .89)
0.91
Sociodemographic variables
 Age (years)      −0.3
(−.18, .13)
0.75 −0.06
(−.22, .10)
0.47 −.12
(−.28, .038)
0.14
 Gender (Reference - male)      0.03
(− 3.69, 3.75)
0.99 0.81
(−2.86, 4.48)
0.67 1.24
(− 2.33, 4.81)
0.49
Ethnicity
 White British/Irish/other      Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Black, Black British/Caribbean/African/other      2.09
(−2.33, 6.51)
0.35 2.09
(− 2.29, 6.47)
0.35 0.53
(−3.80, 4.85)
0.81
 Asian, Asian British/Indian/ Pakistani/Bangladeshi/ other, Chinese      1.23
(−5.70, 8.17)
0.73 −0.76
(−7.65, 6.14)
0.83 −.65
(−7.34, 6.03)
0.85
 Mixed White/Black Caribbean, mixed White/Black African, mixed White/Asian, other mixed, other ethnic groups      −3.26
(−9.57, 3.06)
0.31 −2.92
(−9.25, 3.41)
0.36 −4.28
(−10.46, 1.90)
0.17
 Employment/education status (Reference - not in employment/ education)      2.69
(−1.39, 6.76)
0.20 2.62
(−1.44, 6.69)
0.21 2.18
(−1.77, 6.13)
0.28
Educational attainment
 No qualification      Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Other qualifications      1.52
(−3.94, 6.98)
0.58 1.03
(−4.40, 6.46)
0.71 .91
(−4.35, 6.18)
0.73
 Degree      1.64
(−4.21, 7.49)
0.58 1.16
(−4.63, 6.96)
0.69 1.40
(−4.21, 7.02)
0.62
Psychiatric variables
 Number of psychiatric inpatient hospitalisations
 Never        Reference   Reference  
 Once        1.87
(−2.97, 6.71)
0.45 2.16
(−2.53, 6.86)
0.36
 2 or more        5.21
(.56, 9.86)
0.03 4.37
(−.17, 8.90)
0.059
Number of years since first contact with mental health services
 Less than 3 months        Reference   Reference  
 3 months - 2 years        −3.60
(−9.87, 2.67)
0.26 −4.48
(−10.57, 1.61)
0.15
 2–10 years        −8.06
(−13.51, −2.60)
0.004 −8.20
(− 13.49, − 2.91)
0.003
 More than 10 years        −3.79
(−9.51, 1.92)
0.19 −4.84
(−10.41, .72)
0.09
Baseline BPRS total score        −.19
(−.38, .0002)
0.05 −0.13
(−.31, .06)
0.17
Baseline QPR total score          0.22
(.10, .33)
<.001
R2 adjusted 0.273 0.270 0.244 0.286 0.329
  1. Abbreviation: CI confidence interval, N number of participants, BPRS the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, QPR the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery; R2 adjusted = adjusted- R2
  2. a. multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted with QPR at 18-month follow-up as dependent variable and other factors as independent variables
  3. b. significant p-values are marked in bold