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Table 5 Linear regression between objective social isolation groups and 18-month QPR, controlling for baseline variablesª

From: Trajectories of loneliness and objective social isolation and associations between persistent loneliness and self-reported personal recovery in a cohort of secondary mental health service users in the UK

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
  Coef.
(95% CI)
P- value Coef.
(95% CI)
P-value Coef.
(95% CI)
p-value Coef.
(95% CI)
P-value Coef.
(95% CI)
p-value
Social isolation group
 Never socially isolated group Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Intermittently socially isolated group −3.53
(−7.68, .62)
0.10 −1.75
(−5.80, 2.30)
0.40 −0.64
(− 4.77, 3.48)
0.76 −2.13
(−6.37, 2.12)
0.33 −2.23
(−6.32, 1.85)
0.28
 Persistently socially isolated group −16.35
(−22.18, − 10.53)
<.001b −11.17
(− 17.19, − 5.16)
<.001 −10.63
(− 4.77, 3.48)
0.001 − 10.75
(− 16.93, − 4.57)
0.001 −9.75
(− 15.71, − 3.79)
0.001
Psychosocial variable
 Loneliness score      −.878
(− 1.33, −.43)
<.001 − 0.52
(− 1.01, −.04)
0.04 − 0.12
(−.63, .38)
0.63
Sociodemographic variables
 Age (years)      0.06
(−.10, .22)
0.45 0.02
(−.14, .18)
0.80 −.05
(−.22, .11)
0.51
 Gender (Reference – male)      −.37
(−4.22, 3.48)
0.85 0.52
(−3.29, 4.34)
0.79 1.23
(−2.46, 4.92)
0.51
Ethnicity
 White British/Irish/other      Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Black, Black British/Caribbean/African/other      2.51
(−2.08, 7.09)
0.28 2.55
(−1.99, 7.09)
0.27 0.73
(−3.73, .18)
0.75
 Asian, Asian British/Indian/ Pakistani/Bangladeshi/ other, Chinese      0.89
(−6.33, 8.11)
0.81 −1.60
(−8.81, 5.61)
0.66 −1.92
(−8.85, 5.02)
0.59
 Mixed White/Black Caribbean, mixed White/Black African, mixed White/Asian, other mixed, other ethnic groups      −1.62
(−8.22, 4.97)
0.63 −1.55
(−8.18, 5.08)
0.65 −3.47
(−9.91, 2.98)
0.29
 Employment/education status (Reference - not in employment/ education)      4.09
(−.08, 8.25)
0.054 3.86
(−.31, 8.04)
0.07 3.08
(−.95, 7.11)
0.13
Educational attainment
 No qualification      Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Other qualifications      1.30
(−4.37, 6.97)
0.65 0.59
(−5.04, 6.22)
0.84 .30
(−5.12, 5.71)
0.91
 Degree      1.89
(−4.19, 7.98)
0.54 1.26
(−4.78, 7.29)
0.68 1.36
(−4.45, 7.16)
0.65
Psychiatric variables
 Number of psychiatric inpatient hospitalisations
  Never        Reference   Reference  
  Once        2.06
(−3.00, 7.12)
0.42 2.31
(−2.57, 7.18)
0.35
  More than 2 times        4.92
(−.13, 9.96)
0.056 4.50
(−.36, 9.35)
0.07
 Number of years since first contact with mental health services
  Less than 3 months        Reference   Reference  
  3 months - 2 years        −3.77
(−10.29, 2.75)
0.26 −4.86
(−11.14, 1.43)
0.13
  2–10 years        −9.31
(−14.97, −3.64)
0.001 −9.56
(− 15.01, − 4.12)
0.001
  More than 10 years        −4.56
(−10.49, 1.38)
0.13 −5.90
(− 11.64, −.15)
0.04
Baseline BPRS total score        −0.20
(−.41, .0002)
0.050 −0.17
(−.36, .03)
0.10
Baseline QPR total score          0.26
(.14, .38)
<.001
R2 adjusted 0.115 0.188 0.182 0.227 0.285
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, N number of participants, BPRS the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, QPR the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery; R2 adjusted = adjusted- R2
  2. a. multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted with QPR at 18-month follow-up as dependent variable and other factors as independent variables
  3. b. significant p-values are marked in bold