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Table 3 Estimated difference in each outcome variable between no depression and depression (in December 2019) at each timepoint, and differences in rate of change over time. Results stratified by country are available from the corresponding author

From: Investigating the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on adults with a recent history of recurrent major depressive disorder: a multi-Centre study using remote measurement technology

  Pre-lockdown estimate During-lockdown estimate Post-lockdown estimate Evidence for a difference in the rate of change between pre- and during-lockdown. (Interaction p-value) Evidence for a difference in the rate of change between during- and post-lockdown. (Interaction p-value)
n = 252 (mean PHQ-8 score difference, 95% CI) (mean PHQ-8 score difference, 95% CI) (mean PHQ-8 score difference, 95% CI)   
No Depression Reference group
Depression 9.33 (8.32 to 10.34) 8.47 (7.21 to 9.73) 7.83 (6.70 to 8.96) 0.047 0.112
n = 252 (mean RSES score difference, 95% CI) (mean RSES score difference, 95% CI) (mean RSES score difference, 95% CI)   
No Depression Reference group
Depression −1.09 (− 1.46 to −0.72) − 1.43 (− 1.85 to − 1.05) − 1.31 (− 1.69 to − 0.92) 0.045 0.461
n = 240 (mean sleep duration difference, 95% CI) (mean sleep duration difference, 95% CI) (mean sleep duration difference, 95% CI)   
No Depression Reference group
Depression −10.48 (−28.38 to 7.41) −32.98 (−53.32 to − 12.64) −28.26 (−50.67 to −5.85) < 0.001 0.458