Skip to main content

Table 4 Multivariate and bivariate associations between depression and other mental health measures

From: Depression and its associated factors: perceived stress, social support, substance use and related sociodemographic risk factors in medical school residents in Nairobi, Kenya

Multivariate analysis
Parameter β 95% Wald Confidence Interval Sig.
Variable Category Lower Upper
Gender Female 2.93 0.844 5.019 0.006*
  Male Ref    
Medical specialty Internal medicine 3.24 −0.679 7.158 0.105
  Pediatrics 5.57 1.508 9.624 0.007*
  Obstetrics and Gynecology 4.27 0.574 7.958 0.024*
  General surgery 1.82 −2.275 5.917 0.384
  ENT surgery 4.61 0.169 9.040 0.042*
  Cardiothoracic 0.69 −5.923 7.320 0.836
  Anesthesia 3.79 −0.348 7.935 0.073
  Psychiatry Ref    
Hours of exercise per week 0 h. 1.25 −1.532 4.025 0.379
  <  1 h −1.23 −4.042 1.579 0.391
  1–2.5 h −1.05 −3.895 1.792 0.469
  > 2.5 h Ref    
Hobbies Yes − 1.84 −3.998 0.325 0.096
  No Ref    
Family depression Yes 1.85 −0.408 4.117 0.108
  No Ref    
Previous diagnosis of depression Yes 10.07 6.136 14.007 < 0.001*
  No Ref    
Current illness other than depression Yes 3.06 0.095 6.023 0.043*
  No Ref    
Total household income per month in Kenyan Shillings 10,000 – 50,000 4.54 0.878 8.202 0.015*
  51,000 – 100,000 2.04 −1.075 5.153 0.199
  101,000 – 150,000 3.01 0.792 5.232 0.008*
  > 150,000 Ref    
Sleep hours −0.68 −1.125 −0.242 0.002*
Total PHEEM −0.01 −0.05 0.026 0.529
Total PSS 0.71 0.556 0.863 < 0.001*
Total MSPSS −2.19 −3.023 −1.357 < 0.001*
Total ASSIST 0.07 −0.001 0.137 0.053
Bivariate Analysis
Variable Category β 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Upper Sig.
Gender Female 4.48 1.91 7.05 0.001*
  Male Ref.    
Hobbies Yes −4.61 −7.56 −1.65 0.002*
  No Ref.    
Family depression Yes 6.43 3.31 9.54 < 0.001*
  No Ref.    
Previous diagnosis of depression Yes 15.08 9.78 20.38 < 0.001*
  No Ref.    
Current illness other than depression Yes 7.40 3.24 11.56 < 0.001*
  No Ref.    
Medical specialty Internal medicine −0.17 −5.47 5.14 0.951
  Paediatrics 5.19 −0.25 10.63 0.061
  Obstetrics and Gynaecology 3.07 −2.03 8.17 0.238
  General surgery −2.15 −7.67 3.38 0.446
  ENT surgery 2.67 −3.53 8.87 0.398
  Cardiothoracic surgery −7.05 −15.98 1.88 0.122
  Anaesthesia 0.09 −5.68 5.86 0.975
  Psychiatry Ref.    
Hours of exercise per week 0 h 5.58 1.84 9.32 0.003*
  <  1 h 0.92 −2.99 4.82 0.645
  1–2.5 h 2.03 −2.02 6.08 0.326
  > 2.5 h Ref.    
Total household income per month in Kenyan Shillings 10,000 – 50,000 8.27 2.93 13.61 0.002*
  51,000 – 100,000 −0.09 −4.45 4.27 0.968
  101,000 – 150,000 3.07 −0.09 6.24 0.057
  > 150,000 Ref.    
Sleep hours   −1.29 −1.88 −0.71 < 0.001*
Total PHEEM   −0.14 −0.18 − 0.09 < 0.001*
Total PSS   1.10 0.95 1.25 < 0.001*
Total MSPSS   −4.58 −5.57 −3.59 < 0.001*
Total ASSIST   0.17 0.07 0.26 0.001*
  1. *Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level